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Melanin protects the skin and eyes from the harmful effects of UV irradiation, protects neural cells from toxic insults, and is required for sound conduction in the inner ear. Aberrant regulation of melanogenesis underlies skin disorders (melasma and vitiligo), neurologic disorders (Parkinson's disease), auditory disorders (Waardenburg's syndrome), and(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has a key role in skeletal disease in which it promotes reduced bone formation by mature osteoblasts and increased osteoclastic resorption. Here we show that TNF inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts from precursor cells. TNF-alpha treatment of fetal calvaria precursor cells, which spontaneously differentiate to the(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is an important contributor to the pathophysiology of bone loss in osteoporosis. Previous work has revealed that TNF inhibits 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) action. We have shown that TNF decreases binding of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its heterodimeric partner, the retinoid-x receptor (RXR), to the vitamin D(More)
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