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Giardia intestinalis is a flagellated protozoan which causes enteric disease worldwide. Giardia trophozoites infect epithelial cells of the proximal small intestine and can cause acute or chronic diarrhea. The mechanism of epithelial injury in giardiasis remains unknown. A number of enteric pathogens, including protozoan parasites, are able to induce(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric(More)
Some Herpes-, Pox- and Irido-virus genes (and the controversial Stealth virus gene) share significant nucleotide sequences with vertebrate chemokine receptors (CKR) genes. In some instances the viral reading frame is the same as in the CKRs, giving rise to similar protein products. In other cases the reading frame is different and the viral protein product(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine expression in 22 Leishmania infantum naturally infected dogs, in order to correlate this parameter with the clinical status of infected animals. After 4 and 8 months from the first diagnosis of Leishmania infection, clinical and laboratory examination of dogs was performed and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important enteric protozoan pathogens for humans and animals, and have been found to contaminate water as well as edible shellfish all over the world. This is the first study to simultaneously investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in inflowing water and harvested shellfish in a geographically closed(More)
Resveratrol, a polyphenol abundantly found in grapes and red wine, exhibits beneficial health effects due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 and SW480 cell lines. In the LPS-treated intestinal(More)
CD14 is a surface differentiation antigen that functions as a receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The cellular signaling events that lead to lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators are the primary cause of myocardial dysfunction observed in sepsis. Here, we evaluated the role of CD14 in chick embryo cardiomyocytes stimulated(More)
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin present in a variety of plant species, such as grapes and red wine, that is well known for its anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, a cancer chemotherapeutic activity of resveratrol has been described. Here we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on COX-2 and prostaglandin E(2) production in human intestinal cells(More)
Various proteins that are required for the building of new complete human immunodeficiency type 1 virions (HIV-1) are coded by unspliced or partly spliced virus-derived mRNAs. HIV-1 has developed special strategies for moving these mRNAs to the cytoplasm to be translated. In the nucleus of the infected cell the virus-derived protein Regulator of expression(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), instructed by the priming signals from microbial factors, can produce interleukin (IL)-12p70 and promote T helper (Th)1 proliferation and interferon (IFN)-gamma production. This event seems to be critical for the containment of infections caused by intracellular pathogens, even including Leishmania infection. In the present in vitro(More)