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A basic idea of plant defences is that a plant should gain protection from its own defence. In addition, there is evidence that defence traits of the neighbouring plants can influence the degree of protection of an individual plant. These associational effects depend in part on the spatial scale of herbivore selectivity. A strong between-patch selectivity(More)
Boreal forest trees are highly dependent on root-colonizing mycorrhizal fungi. Since the maintenance of mycorrhizal symbiosis implies a significant carbon cost for the host plant, the loss of photosynthetic leaf area due to herbivory is expected to reduce the host investment in mycorrhizae. We tested this hypothesis in a common garden experiment by exposing(More)
Growth of the host and its symbiont is often closely linked and so host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. While negative effects of aboveground herbivory on belowground fungal symbionts have been reported in several woody and herbaceous plants, here we report, for the first time, on differential effects of the timing of foliar damage on(More)
Foliar phosphorus concentrations have decreased in Europe during the last 20 years. High atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change might be responsible for this trend. Continued decrease in foliar P concentrations might lead to reduced growth and vitality of beech forests in Europe. Increased forest soil acidification, atmospheric nitrogen(More)
Analysis of foliar elements is a commonly used method for studying tree nutrition and for monitoring the impacts of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. Interpretations based on the results of foliar element analysis may, however, be different in nutrition vs. monitoring studies. We studied the impacts of severe sulphur and metal (mainly Cu and Ni)(More)
Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50(More)
Meristem allocation models suggest that the patterns of compensatory regrowth responses following grazing vary, depending on (i) the number of latent meristems that escape from being damaged, and (ii) the activation sensitivity of the meristems in relation to the degree of damage. We examined the shape of compensatory responses in two late-flowering(More)
The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main European tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to(More)
Perennial, polycarpic herbs can respond to herbivory either by (1) regrowth in the same season in order to compensate for lost reproductive structures or by (2) postponing reproduction until the following growing season. We tested these response patterns with the perennial umbellifer Pimpinella saxifraga by simulating flower herbivory and shoot grazing both(More)
Phenolic compounds often accumulate in foliar tissues of deciduous woody plants in response to previous insect defoliation, but similar responses have been observed infrequently in evergreen conifers. We studied the effects of defoliation on the foliar chemistry of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cocoon mass, and survival of the pine sawfly (Diprion(More)