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We examined how the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) affects the distribution of electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement sensitivity. We used concentric spheres and realistic head models to investigate the difference between computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) models that exclude the CSF layer. The cortical EEG sensitivity distributions(More)
Previous studies have shown differential event-related potentials (ERPs) to fearful and happy/neutral facial expressions. To investigate whether the brain systems underlying these ERP differences are sensitive to the intensity of fear and happiness, behavioral recognition accuracy and reaction times as well as ERPs were measured while observers categorized(More)
A large number of computerized conductivity models of the human thorax have been created to study bioelectric phenomena in human beings. Devised models have varied greatly in the level of anatomical detail incorporated thus restricting the accuracy and validity of conducted simulations. This paper introduces a highly detailed anatomically accurate(More)
Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the(More)
The effects of tissue resistivities on EEG amplitudes were studied using an anatomically accurate computer model based on the finite difference method (FDM) and lead field analysis covering the whole brain area with 180,000 nodes. Five tissue types and three lead fields were considered for analysis. The changes in sensitivity distribution are directly(More)
BACKGROUND Although clinical applications such as emergency medicine and prehospital care could benefit from a fast-mounting electroencephalography (EEG) recording system, the lack of specifically designed equipment restricts the use of EEG in these environments. METHODS This paper describes the design and testing of a six-channel emergency EEG (emEEG)(More)
We have developed the theory and instrumentation of multiple multi-electrode bio-impedance (BI) measurements based on lead field theoretical approach. To derive reliable information based on BI data, a quantity of measurements should be taken with electrode configurations possessing regional measurement sensitivity. An apparatus has been developed with an(More)
In this paper, we describe our all-titanium microelectrode array (tMEA) fabrication process and show that uncoated titanium microelectrodes are fully applicable to measuring field potentials (FPs) from neurons and cardiomyocytes. Many novel research questions require custom designed microelectrode configurations different from the few commercially available(More)
—The electroencephalogram (EEG) generated by cere-bral cortex can be recorded far away from the cortex, analogous to the electrocardiogram (ECG) that can be recorded far from the heart. ECG is often seen as an artifact in EEG recordings. In this paper we demonstrate that the burst suppression pattern of EEG, which is generated by the cerebral cortex, can be(More)
New miniaturized portable ECG measuring devices may require reduced electrode size and distance. Modeling tools can be useful in predicting the behavior of electric field between electrodes. This work introduces a project where the effect of interelectrode distance (IED) of ECG precordial electrodes was studied with a model of the thorax as a volume(More)
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