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BACKGROUND Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity is widespread among ingested bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. It is sometimes considered to be beneficial because of its putative lowering effect on cholesterol absorption and sometimes considered to be deleterious because it may compromise normal fat absorption and even promote the formation of secondary(More)
The microbial community in the human colon contains bacteria that reduce cholesterol to coprostanol, but the species responsible for this conversion are still unknown. We describe here the first isolation and characterization of a cholesterol-reducing bacterium of human intestinal origin. Strain D8 was isolated from a 10(-8) dilution of a fresh stool sample(More)
Intensity of the cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion in the intestine, as assessed by the coprostanol-to-cholesterol ratio in faeces, was found highly variable among 15 human volunteers, ranging from absent to almost complete cholesterol conversion. The number of coprostanoligenic bacteria in the same faecal samples, as estimated by the most probable(More)
Ursodeoxycholic acid-producing bacteria are of clinical and industrial interest due to the multiple beneficial effects of this bile acid on human health. This work reports the first isolation of 7-epimerizing bacteria from feces of a healthy volunteer, on the basis of their capacity to epimerize the primary bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, to(More)
OBJECTIVE No Crohn's disease (CD) molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and(More)
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a regular consumption of yogurt on the composition and metabolism of the human intestinal microbiota. Adult subjects were selected on the basis of daily food records and divided into two groups: yogurt consumers (at least 200 g yogurt consumed per d, n 30); non-consumers (no yogurt, n 21).(More)
The efficiency of microbial reduction of cholesterol to coprostanol in human gut is highly variable among population and mechanisms remain unexplored. In the present study, we investigated whether microbial communities and their cholesterol metabolism characteristics can be transferred to germ-free rats. Two groups of six, initially germ-free rats were(More)
This study was performed with growing chickens (4 to 22 d of age) to evaluate the effects of feeding a rye-based diet supplemented with commercial enzyme preparation containing xylanase and beta-glucanase (Quatrazyme HP, Nutri-Tomen, France) on small intestine wall morphology, bile acid composition, nutrient digestibility, and bird performance compared with(More)
Diet and particularly dietary fibres have an impact on the gut microbiome and play an important role in human health and disease. Pectin is a highly consumed dietary fibre found in fruits and vegetables and is also a widely used additive in the food industry. Yet there is no information on the effect of pectin on the human gut microbiome. Likewise, little(More)
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the consequence of Camembert consumption on the composition and metabolism of human intestinal microbiota. Camembert cheese was compared with milk fermented by yoghurt starters and Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic reference. The experimental model was the human microbiota-associated (HM) rat. HM rats were(More)