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Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), jointly referring to TNF alpha and TNF beta, is a central mediator of immune and inflammatory responses; its activities are mediated by two distinct receptors, TNFR1 (p55) and TNFR2 (p75) (reviewed in refs 1-3). The cytoplasmic domains of the TNFRs are unrelated, suggesting that they link to different intracellular signalling(More)
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are well known for mediating the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Here we identify in rodents and humans a population of VTA dopaminergic neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). We provide further evidence in rodents that chronic nicotine exposure upregulates Crh mRNA(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) exhibit considerable heterogeneity in their anatomical location, surface phenotype, and functional properties. In this study, we demonstrate that peripheral lymph nodes contain at least four major, functionally separable, and independently derived, DC subsets, which can be clearly demarcated by their CD11c, CD40, and CD8 expression(More)
Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but(More)
Telomestatin is a potent G-quadruplex ligand that specifically interacts with the 3' telomeric overhang, leading to its degradation and that induces a delayed senescence and apoptosis of cancer cells. Protection of Telomere 1 (POT1) was recently identified as a specific single-stranded telomere-binding protein involved in telomere capping and T-loop(More)
Cytokines are known to be key players in host response to infection, immunological disorders, and tissue injury in the attempt of an organism to overcome the insult and restore homeostasis. Another important aspect of cytokines, however, is their normal physiological role during development in the unchallenged organism. The most elegant way to analyze both(More)
Dynorphins, endogenous opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin (Pdyn), are hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mood states and the neuroplasticity associated with addiction. The current study tested the hypothesis that dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) mediates such effects. More specifically, we examined(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide widely distributed in the mammalian brain. This peptide regulates many physiological functions and behaviors, such as cardio-respiratory control, thermoregulation, nociception, feeding, memory processes and motivational responses, and plays a prominent role in emotional responses including anxiety and depression.(More)
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in skeletal muscle and is essential for calcium homeostasis. The mechanisms involved in SR remodeling and maintenance of SR subdomains are elusive. In this study, we identified myotubularin (MTM1), a phosphoinositide phosphatase mutated in X-linked centronuclear myopathy(More)
We have been able to identify the cell subset derived from Langerhans cells in the total dendritic cell population of the peripheral lymph node and hence to follow their trafficking under normal physiological conditions as well as upon skin irritation. As expected, the rapid mobilization of Langerhans cells triggered by inflammatory signals into the(More)