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In order to determine the mono- or oligosynaptic character of connections between pyramidal axons and individual spinal motor neurons, we constructed peri-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) of the firing probability of voluntarily activated single motor units (SMUs) of various upper and lower limb muscles upon slightly suprathreshold transcranial anodal(More)
Pressure pain thresholds were assessed with an algometer (Somedic Inc.), over the forehead, temple and suboccipital region as well as over the Achilles tendon. A group of 32 patients suffering from chronic tension-type headache was compared to 20 healthy controls and to 10 migraineurs without aura. Although individual values were widely scattered, pressure(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the nature of CACNA1A mutations in episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), to search for mutations in sporadic cases, and to delineate better the clinical spectrum. BACKGROUND EA2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent acetazolamide-responsive attacks of cerebellar ataxia. The mutated gene, CACNA1A, located on(More)
OBJECTIVE Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test prospectively corticospinal excitability changes and reorganization of first dorsal interosseous (FDI) motor cortical representation in 31 patients who experienced a first ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory. All had severe hand palsy at onset. METHODS Patients were(More)
Between attacks, migraine patients are characterized by potentiation instead of habituation of stimulation-evoked cortical responses. It is debated whether this is due to increased or decreased cortical excitability. We have studied the changes in visual cortex excitability by recording pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEP) after low- and(More)
Between attacks, migraineurs lack habituation in standard visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual stimuli also evoke high-frequency oscillations in the gamma band range (GBOs, 20-35 Hz) assumed to be generated both at subcortical (early GBOs) and cortical levels (late GBOs). The consecutive peaks of GBOs were analysed regarding amplitude and habituation in(More)
The pathogenic mechanism of neural tube defects may involve genetic polymorphisms and nutritional factors related to homocysteine metabolism. We evaluated the association of polymorphisms of three genes affecting vitamin B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine, transcobalamin (TC), methionine synthase (MTR) and MTR reductase (MTRR), combined or not with(More)
OBJECTIVES Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate motor cortex excitability, intracortical excitatory, and inhibitory pathways in 18 patients having experienced a first "grand mal" seizure within 48 hours of the electrophysiological test. All had normal brain MRI, and were free of any treatment, drug, or alcohol misuse. Results were(More)
EMG activity was recorded over frontalis, temporalis and trapezius muscles in a supine position, a standing position and during a mental task in 32 female patients suffering from chronic tension-type headache and in 20 healthy volunteers. Measurements in patients were made before and after biofeedback therapy. All EMG levels were on average significantly(More)
We performed transcranial magnetic stimulations of the motor and visual cortices in healthy controls (n = 27) and in patients suffering from migraine without (n = 33) or with (n = 25) aura between attacks. By using a 13-cm circular coil placed over the vertex and recordings of the first dorsal interosseus muscle, we measured thresholds (at rest and during(More)