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Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) are important cytokines in the development of brain inflammation during pathological process. During rabies virus infection, the level of these proinflammatory cytokines are enhanced in the brain. In the present study we determined the cellular localization of these two cytokines by(More)
Repeated in vivo two-photon imaging of adult mammalian spinal cords, with subcellular resolution, would be crucial for understanding cellular mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions. Current methods are limited because they require surgery for each imaging session. Here we report a simple glass window methodology avoiding repeated surgical(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult rodents is the standard experimental model for studying autonomic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we present a low-cost and reproducible glass window implantation protocol that is suitable for intravital microscopy and studying the dynamics of spinal cord cytoarchitecture with(More)
We have evaluated the effect of rabies virus infection on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) production and its receptors in mouse brain. Study of virus dissemination in the central nervous system (CNS) showed a massive infection of main brain structures from day 4 post infection (p.i.) up to the agony stage on day 6 p.i. At the same time, IL-1 alpha(More)
The restitution of epithelial integrity is accomplished in part by cell migration. Studying this process, we have found that nitric oxide (NO) release migrating epithelial BSC-1 cells displayed a biphasic response to the inflicted wounds; an initial transient release of NO is followed by a delayed sustained elevation. Whereas the constitutive endothelial NO(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), resident and peripheral myelomonocytic cells are recruited to the injury site and play a role in injury progression. These cells are important for clearing cellular debris, and can modulate the retraction and growth of axons in vitro. However, their precise spatiotemporal recruitment dynamics is unknown, and their respective(More)
A mouse model was designed to test in vivo the efficacy of rabies immune globulins and specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to prevent European bat lyssavirus 1 infection. Human or equine rabies immune globulins previously found to contain variable amounts of neutralizing bat lyssavirus crossreactive antibodies were passively transferred to mice(More)
Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and(More)