Learn More
Cell death is achieved by two fundamentally different mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptosis is dependent on caspase activation, whereas the caspase-independent necrotic signaling pathway remains largely uncharacterized. We show here that Fas kills activated primary T cells efficiently in the absence of active caspases, which results in necrotic(More)
XIAP prevents apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting caspases, and this inhibition can be relieved by IAP antagonists, such as Smac/DIABLO. IAP antagonist compounds (IACs) have therefore been designed to inhibit XIAP to kill tumor cells. Because XIAP inhibits postmitochondrial caspases, caspase 8 inhibitors should not block killing by IACs. Instead, we show(More)
The widely expressed protein Fas is a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family which can trigger apoptosis. However, Fas surface expression does not necessarily render cells susceptible to Fas ligand-induced death signals, indicating that inhibitors of the apoptosis-signalling pathway must exist. Here we report the characterization of an(More)
The cause of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is unresolved, although dysregulated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members appears to be important in many cases. BAFF, a new member of the TNF family, binds to B cells and costimulates their growth in vitro. Mice transgenic for BAFF have vastly increased numbers of mature B and(More)
B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are closely related ligands within the TNF superfamily that play important roles in B lymphocyte biology. Both ligands share two receptors--transmembrane activator and calcium signal--modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) and B(More)
Ligands of the TNF (tumour necrosis factor) superfamily have pivotal roles in the organization and function of the immune system, and are implicated in the aetiology of several acquired and genetic diseases. TNF ligands share a common structural motif, the TNF homology domain (THD), which binds to cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) of TNF receptors. CRDs are(More)
B cell homeostasis has been shown to critically depend on BAFF, the B cell activation factor from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Although BAFF is already known to bind two receptors, BCMA and TACI, we have identified a third receptor for BAFF that we have termed BAFF-R. BAFF-R binding appears to be highly specific for BAFF, suggesting a unique role(More)
Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family induce pleiotropic biological responses, including cell growth, differentiation, and even death. Here we describe a novel member of the TNF family designated APRIL (for a proliferation-inducing ligand). Although transcripts of APRIL are of low abundance in normal tissues, high levels of mRNA are detected in(More)
MyD88 has a modular organization, an N-terminal death domain (DD) related to the cytoplasmic signaling domains found in many members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily, and a C-terminal Toll domain similar to that found in the expanding family of Toll/interleukin-1-like receptors (IL-1R). This dual domain structure, together with the(More)