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Studies have shown that the bulk of eukaryotic genomes is transcribed. Transcriptome maps are frequently updated, but low-abundant transcripts have probably gone unnoticed. To eliminate RNA degradation, we depleted the exonucleolytic RNA exosome from human cells and then subjected the RNA to tiling microarray analysis. This revealed a class of short,(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pre-mRNA 3'-end processing requires six factors: cleavage factor IA (CF IA), cleavage factor IB (CF IB), cleavage factor II (CF II), polyadenylation factor I (PF I), poly(A) polymerase (Pap1p) and poly(A)-binding protein I (Pab1p). We report the characterization of Pfs2p, a WD-repeat protein previously identified in a(More)
Active human promoters produce promoter-upstream transcripts (PROMPTs). Why these RNAs are coupled to decay, whereas their neighboring promoter-downstream mRNAs are not, is unknown. Here high-throughput sequencing demonstrates that PROMPTs generally initiate in the antisense direction closely upstream of the transcription start sites (TSSs) of their(More)
Most eukaryotic pre-messenger RNAs are processed at their 3' ends by endonucleolytic cleavage and polyadenylation. In yeast, this processing requires polyadenylate [poly(A)] polymerase (PAP) and other proteins that have not yet been characterized. Here, mutations in the PAP1 gene were shown to be synergistically lethal with previously identified mutations(More)
PROMoter uPstream Transcripts (PROMPTs) were identified as a new class of human RNAs, which are heterologous in length and produced only upstream of the promoters of active protein-coding genes. Here, we show that PROMPTs carry 3'-adenosine tails and 5'-cap structures. However, unlike mRNAs, PROMPTs are largely nuclear and rapidly turned over by the RNA(More)
Yra1p is an essential RNA-binding protein that couples transcription to export. The YRA1 gene is one of only approximately 5% of genes that undergo splicing in budding yeast, and its intron is unusual in several respects, including its large size and anomalous branchpoint sequence. We showed previously that the intron is required for autogenous regulation(More)
Polyadenylation of premessenger RNAs occurs posttranscriptionally in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells by cleavage of the precursor and polymerization of adenosine residues. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mature poly(A) tail ranges from 60 to 70 nucleotides. 3'-end processing can be reproduced in vitro with purified factors. The cleavage reaction(More)
Efforts to catalog eukaryotic transcripts have uncovered many small RNAs (sRNAs) derived from gene termini and splice sites. Their biogenesis pathways are largely unknown, but a mechanism based on backtracking of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) has been suggested. By sequencing transcripts 12-100 nucleotides in length from cells depleted of major RNA degradation(More)