Pascal G. P. Martin

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In mammalian cells, elongases and desaturases play critical roles in regulating the length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids and thereby their functions and metabolic fates. In the past decade, a great deal has been learnt about these enzymes and the first part of this review summarizes our current knowledge concerning these enzymes. More recently,(More)
UNLABELLED Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is a major transcriptional regulator of lipid metabolism. It is activated by diverse chemicals such as fatty acids (FAs) and regulates the expression of numerous genes in organs displaying high FA catabolic rates, including the liver. The role of this nuclear receptor as a sensor of(More)
UNLABELLED Changes in lifestyle are suspected to have strongly influenced the current obesity epidemic. Based on recent experimental, clinical, and epidemiological work, it has been proposed that some food contaminants may exert damaging effects on endocrine and metabolic functions, thereby promoting obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as(More)
The liver is a major site of fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Transcriptional regulation is one of several mechanisms controlling hepatic metabolism of fatty acids. Two transcription factors, namely SREBP1-c and PPARalpha, appear to be the main players controlling synthesis and degradation of fatty acids respectively. This chapter briefly presents(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical estrogen widely used in the food-packaging industry and baby bottles, is recovered in human fluids (0.1-10 nM). Recent studies have reported that BPA is hormonally active at low doses, emphasizing the debate of a risk for human health. Estrogen receptors are expressed in the colon, and although the major route of BPA exposure(More)
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, is detected in consumer's body fluids. Contamination occurs through environmental and food chain sources. In mouse liver, DEHP activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and regulates the expression of its target genes. Several in vitro investigations support the(More)
Vitamin D controls calcium homeostasis and the development and maintenance of bones through vitamin D receptor activation. Prolonged therapy with rifampicin or phenobarbital has been shown to cause vitamin D deficiency or osteomalacia, particularly in patients with marginal vitamin D stores. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is unknown. Here(More)
The effects of chronic fat overconsumption on intestinal physiology and lipid metabolism remain elusive. It is unknown whether a fat-mediated adaptation to lipid absorption takes place. To address this issue, mice fed a high-fat diet (40%, w/w) were refed or not a control diet (3%, w/w) for 3 additive weeks. Despite daily lipid intake 7.7-fold higher than(More)
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing/termination shortly after initiation is a hallmark of gene regulation. Here, we show that negative elongation factor (NELF) interacts with Integrator complex subunits (INTScom), RNAPII and Spt5. The interaction between NELF and INTScom subunits is RNA and DNA independent. Using both human immunodeficiency virus type 1(More)
Factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activation (FAN) is an adaptor protein that constitutively binds to TNF-R1. Microarray analysis was performed in fibroblasts derived from wild-type or FAN knockout mouse embryos to evaluate the role of FAN in TNF-induced gene expression. Approximately 70% of TNF-induced genes exhibited lower expression levels(More)