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Little is known about the dynamics of chromosomes in interphase nuclei. By tagging four chromosomal regions with a green fluorescent protein fusion to lac repressor, we monitored the movement and subnuclear position of specific sites in the yeast genome, sampling at short time intervals. We found that early and late origins of replication are highly mobile(More)
A cryo-electron microscopy study of supercoiled DNA molecules freely suspended in cryo-vitrified buffer was combined with Monte Carlo simulations and gel electrophoretic analysis to investigate the role of intersegmental electrostatic repulsion in determining the shape of supercoiled DNA molecules. It is demonstrated here that a decrease of DNA-DNA(More)
Axial deflection of DNA molecules in solution results from thermal motion and intrinsic curvature related to the DNA sequence. In order to measure directly the contribution of thermal motion we constructed intrinsically straight DNA molecules and measured their persistence length by cryo-electron microscopy. The persistence length of such intrinsically(More)
The mucoadhesive polysaccharide chitosan was evaluated as a potential component in ophthalmic gels for enabling increased precorneal drug residence times. This cationic vehicle was expected to slow down drug elimination by the lacrymal flow both by increasing solution viscosity and by interacting with the negative charges of the mucus. The molecular weight(More)
Whereas the DNA path inside the nucleosome is well established, it is essentially unknown in the "entry-exit" region, a missing piece in our understanding of the chromatin fiber's folding. The three-dimensional structure of "linker" DNA was investigated here on single nucleosomes reconstituted without H1 on a 256-bp DNA fragment. Cryoelectron microscopy and(More)
Eye drops are multiple dosage forms protected against microbial contamination by means of preservatives. However, the ocular tolerance of these chemicals can vary and this may result in adverse toxic or allergic reactions. This overview presents the pharmacopoeial requirements for the preservation of eye drops, the factors affecting ocular tolerance as well(More)
An ocular irritation test using confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy has been developed in which corneal lesions subsequent to instillation of surfactants are specifically marked by fluorescein and assessed by digital image processing. The sum of the observed fluorescent corneal areas is taken into account as an endpoint of ocular irritation. Eight(More)
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that a novel water-soluble prodrug of cyclosporine A (CsA) intended for topical ocular administration, does not induce eye irritation in a rabbit model and is able to generate therapeutic concentrations of CsA in the precorneal area immediately after administration. The eye irritancy of the prodrug and CsA control(More)