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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) pathway is often constitutively activated in human tumor cells, providing unique opportunities for anticancer therapeutic intervention. NVP-BEZ235 is an imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline derivative that inhibits PI3K and mTOR kinase activity by binding to the ATP-binding cleft(More)
As a drug used to treat imatinib-resistant and -intolerant, chronic and advanced phase chronic myelogenous leukaemia, nilotinib is well characterised as a potent inhibitor of the Abl tyrosine kinase activity of wild-type and imatinib-resistant mutant forms of BCR-Abl. Here we review the profile of nilotinib as a protein kinase inhibitor. Although an(More)
A systematic analysis reveals that out of 20 protein kinases examined, specific for either Ser/Thr or Tyr, the majority are extremely sensitive to staurosporine, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. A few of them however, notably protein kinases CK1 and CK2, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and protein-tyrosine kinase CSK, are relatively(More)
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is driven by the activity of the BCR-ABL1 fusion oncoprotein. ABL1 kinase inhibitors have improved the clinical outcomes for patients with CML, with over 80% of patients treated with imatinib surviving for more than 10 years. Second-generation ABL1 kinase inhibitors induce more potent molecular responses in both previously(More)
BACKGROUND Topoisomerase II poisons are in clinical use as anti-cancer therapy for decades and work by stabilizing the enzyme-induced DNA breaks. In contrast, catalytic inhibitors block the enzyme before DNA scission. Although several catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II have been described, preclinical concepts for exploiting their anti-proliferative(More)
Following the paradigm set by STI571, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are emerging as a promising class of drugs, capable of modulating intracellular signaling and demonstrating therapeutic potential for the treatment of proliferative diseases. Although the majority of chronic phase CML patients treated with STI571 respond, some patients, especially(More)
Protein kinases play a crucial role in signal transduction as well as in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and various regulatory mechanisms. The inhibition of growth related kinases, especially tyrosine kinases, might provide new therapies for diseases such as cancer. The progress made in the crystallization of protein kinases has confirmed that the(More)
Initial studies with angiogenesis inhibitors showed little clinical benefit. However, recently reported clinical studies in colorectal cancer have shown that bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody, in combination with cytotoxic therapy has positive effects on patient survival. Furthermore, the VEGF receptor kinase(More)
Protein tyrosine kinases play a fundamental role in signal transduction pathways. Deregulated tyrosine kinase activity has been observed in many proliferative diseases (e.g., cancer, psoriasis, restenosis, etc.). Tyrosine kinases are, therefore, attractive targets for the design of new therapeutic agents against cancer. We have built up a pharmacophore(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) represents a prime target for the treatment of cancer because most human cancers are characterized by overexpression of its activating partner cyclin D1, loss of the natural Cdk4-specific inhibitor p16, or mutation(s) in Cdk4's catalytic subunit. All of these can cause deregulated cell growth, resulting in tumor(More)