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At any one moment, many neuronal groups in our brain are active. Microelectrode recordings have characterized the activation of single neurons and fMRI has unveiled brain-wide activation patterns. Now it is time to understand how the many active neuronal groups interact with each other and how their communication is flexibly modulated to bring about our(More)
This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimental neuroscientists to analyze experimental data. It includes(More)
Classical theories of sensory processing view the brain as a passive, stimulus-driven device. By contrast, more recent approaches emphasize the constructive nature of perception, viewing it as an active and highly selective process. Indeed, there is ample evidence that the processing of stimuli is controlled by top-down influences that strongly shape the(More)
In this review, we consider the potential functional role of beta-band oscillations, which at present is not yet well understood. We discuss evidence from recent studies on top-down mechanisms involved in cognitive processing, on the motor system and on the pathophysiology of movement disorders that suggest a unifying hypothesis: beta-band activity seems(More)
Neuronal gamma-band synchronization is found in many cortical areas, is induced by different stimuli or tasks, and is related to several cognitive capacities. Thus, it appears as if many different gamma-band synchronization phenomena subserve many different functions. I argue that gamma-band synchronization is a fundamental process that subserves an(More)
Activated neuronal groups typically engage in rhythmic synchronization in the gamma-frequency range (30-100 Hz). Experimental and modeling studies demonstrate that each gamma cycle is framed by synchronized spiking of inhibitory interneurons. Here, we review evidence suggesting that the resulting rhythmic network inhibition interacts with excitatory input(More)
This Perspective considers the influential notion of a canonical (cortical) microcircuit in light of recent theories about neuronal processing. Specifically, we conciliate quantitative studies of microcircuitry and the functional logic of neuronal computations. We revisit the established idea that message passing among hierarchical cortical areas implements(More)
Brain processing depends on the interactions between neuronal groups. Those interactions are governed by the pattern of anatomical connections and by yet unknown mechanisms that modulate the effective strength of a given connection. We found that the mutual influence among neuronal groups depends on the phase relation between rhythmic activities within the(More)
Our capacity to process and respond behaviourally to multiple incoming stimuli is very limited. To optimize the use of this limited capacity, attentional mechanisms give priority to behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant distractors. In visual areas, attended stimuli induce enhanced responses and an improved synchronization of rhythmic(More)
Neuronal gamma-band (30-100 Hz) synchronization subserves fundamental functions in neuronal processing. However, different experimental approaches differ widely in their success in finding gamma-band activity. We aimed at linking animal and human studies of gamma-band activity and at preparing optimized methods for an in-depth investigation of the(More)