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Neurological disorders represent one of the most common disturbances accompanying HIV infection. In the past few years, highly antiretroviral active therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of HIV-related diseases. However, neurological dysfunction in AIDS patients still remains an unresolved problem. Oxidative stress, which occurs in brain tissues(More)
The growing array of in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which have been used makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions concerning the BBB penetration of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. What is needed is a combined in vivo and in vitro study on biological models that mimic as closely as possible the normal human BBB, to establish whether and how(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), the T-cell receptors (TCRS) of autoreactive T lymphocytes recognize various myelin components or derivatives including peptides of the myelin basic protein (MBP). Using the exhaustive immunoscope approach we showed that the T-cell repertoires of MS patients differ from those of healthy controls, with expansion of Vbeta13 cell(More)
It is now widely accepted that neuronal damage in HIV infection results mainly from microglial activation and involves apoptosis, oxidative stress and glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity. Glutamate toxicity acts via 2 distinct pathways: an excitotoxic one in which glutamate receptors are hyperactivated, and an oxidative one in which cystine uptake is(More)
The HIV-1 envelope, gp120, which features the binding determinants for both CD4 and coreceptor recognition, is key for virus entry and represents an attractive pharmacological target. However, critical domains for entry (coreceptor and CD4 binding sites) are either cryptic or located in partially occluded cavities. Here we developed a chemical approach to(More)
The neuroregulatory activities of PMS-601, a platelet activating factor antagonist, were investigated in laboratory and animal models of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). For the former, PMS-601 reduced monocyte-derived macrophage pro-inflammatory secretions, multinucleated giant cell (MGC) formation, and neuronal loss independent of antiretroviral responses.(More)
IFN-tau is a non-cytotoxic type I IFN responsible for maternal recognition of the foetus in ruminants. IFN-tau has been found to inhibit HIV replication more strongly than human IFN-alpha, particularly in human monocyte-derived macrophages, without associated toxicity. Ovine IFN-tau uses the same anti-viral cellular pathways as human IFN-alpha in human(More)
Cancer progression has been associated with the presence of tumor-associated M2-macrophages (M2-TAMs) able to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. It is also often associated with metastasis-induced bone destruction mediated by osteoclasts. Both cell types are controlled by the CD115 (CSF-1R)/colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1, M-CSF) pathway, making CD115(More)
The biologically active form of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a heterodimer. The formation of RT is a two-step mechanism, including a rapid protein-protein interaction "the dimerization step," followed by conformational changes "the maturation step," yielding the biologically active form of the enzyme. We have(More)
Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were demonstrated to be susceptible to productive infection by the monocytotropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain HIV-1/Ba-L and by three primary HIV-1 isolates, HIV-1/DAS, HIV-1/PAR and HIV-1/THI. Production of tumour necrosis factor-or (TNF-ct), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-lfl was monitored between(More)