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Cysteine is the limiting precursor for glutathione synthesis. Because of its low bioavailability, cysteine is generally produced from cystine, which may be taken up through two different transporters. The cystine/glutamate antiporter (x system) transports extracellular cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. The X(AG) transport system takes up(More)
Aluminum hydroxide (AlOOH) has been used for many years as a vaccine adjuvant, but little is known about its mechanism of action. We investigated in this study the in vitro effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on isolated macrophages. We showed that AlOOH-stimulated macrophages contain large and persistent intracellular crystalline inclusions, a(More)
Neurological disorders represent one of the most common disturbances accompanying HIV infection. In the past few years, highly antiretroviral active therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of HIV-related diseases. However, neurological dysfunction in AIDS patients still remains an unresolved problem. Oxidative stress, which occurs in brain tissues(More)
The growing array of in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which have been used makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions concerning the BBB penetration of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. What is needed is a combined in vivo and in vitro study on biological models that mimic as closely as possible the normal human BBB, to establish whether and how(More)
HIV infection ultimately leads to AIDS, despite the immune responses elicited soon after infection. In addition to the observed changes in lymphoid cell subsets, alteration of the cytokine network most likely accompanies and/or contributes to the lack of protective immune responses. In an attempt to delineate the early events in the immune response to(More)
Amphotericin B derivatives, such as MS-8209, have been evaluated as a therapeutic approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We show that MS-8209, like amphotericin B, increases tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression and TNF-alpha production and consequently HIV replication in human macrophages. These effects confirm the(More)
In the domain of health, one important challenge is the efficient delivery of drugs in the body using non-toxic nanocarriers. Most of the existing carrier materials show poor drug loading (usually less than 5 wt% of the transported drug versus the carrier material) and/or rapid release of the proportion of the drug that is simply adsorbed (or anchored) at(More)
Intramuscular administration of aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induces an infiltration of aluminum-containing macrophages between muscle fibers. In vitro stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with aluminum hydroxide (AlOOH) induces similar intracellular crystalline inclusions as well as phenotypical and functional modifications. We compared in(More)
In the present work, the capacity of new pro-GSH molecules to increase the intra-macrophage thiol content in vitro and in vivo as well as to shift the immune response to Th1 in ovalbumin (Ova)-sensitized mice were examined. The molecules were the N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and beta-mercaptoethylamine (MEA),(More)