Pascal Bernard

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Centromeres are heterochromatic in many organisms, but the mitotic function of this silent chromatin remains unknown. During cell division, newly replicated sister chromatids must cohere until anaphase when Scc1/Rad21-mediated cohesion is destroyed. In metazoans, chromosome arm cohesins dissociate during prophase, leaving centromeres as the only linkage(More)
The spindle checkpoint ensures proper chromosome segregation by delaying anaphase until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle. We investigated the role of the fission yeast bub1 gene in spindle checkpoint function and in unperturbed mitoses. We find that bub1(+) is essential for the fission yeast spindle checkpoint response to(More)
In Escherichia coli, the miniF plasmid CcdB protein is responsible for cell death when its action is not prevented by polypeptide CcdA. We report the isolation, localization, sequencing and properties of a bacterial mutant resistant to the cytotoxic activity of the CcdB protein. This mutation is located in the gene encoding the A subunit of topoisomerase II(More)
In mammals, sex is determined in the bipotential embryonic gonad by a balanced network of gene actions which when altered causes disorders of sexual development (DSD, formerly known as intersex). In the XY gonad, presumptive Sertoli cells begin to differentiate when SRY up-regulates SOX9, which in turn activates FGF9 and PGDS to maintain its own expression.(More)
Plasmids pKIL18/19 are positive-selection cloning vectors containing an active cytotoxic ccdB gene under the control of the lacP promoter. They are derivatives of high-copy-number pUC18/19 plasmids in which the ccdB killer gene has been fused in phase downstream from the lacP MCS18 and MCS19 multiple cloning sites. When an Escherichia coli wild-type gyrA+(More)
Sister-chromatid cohesion is mediated by cohesin, a ring-shape complex made of four core subunits called Scc1, Scc3, Smc1, and Smc3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Rad21, Psc3, Psm1, and Psm3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe). How cohesin ensures cohesion is unknown, although its ring shape suggests that it may tether sister DNA strands by encircling them .(More)
Heterochromatin performs a central role in chromosome segregation and stability by promoting cohesion at centromeres. Establishment of both heterochromatin-mediated silencing and cohesion requires passage through S phase, although the mechanism is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hsk1 (CDC7), a conserved Dbf4-dependent protein(More)
The SRY-related SOX9 gene is involved in both chondrogenesis and the early steps of mammalian sex determination. Mutations in the human SOX9 gene cause campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal malformation syndrome associated with male-to-female sex reversal in most, but not all, XY individuals. Here we show that SOX9 contains a dimerization domain, and(More)
The two main functions of the ovary are the production of oocytes, which allows the continuation of the species, and secretion of female sex hormones, which control many aspects of female development and physiology. Normal development of the ovaries during embryogenesis is critical for their function and the health of the individual in later life. Although(More)
In meiosis, sister-chromatids move to the same spindle pole during the first division (MI) and to opposite poles during the second division (MII). This requires that MI sister kinetochores are co-orientated and form an apparent single functional unit that only interacts with microtubules from one pole, and that sister-chromatids remain associated through(More)