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Astrocytes, the most prominent glial cell type in the brain, send specialized processes named endfeet, which enwrap blood vessels and express a large molecular repertoire dedicated to the physiology of the vascular system. One of the most striking properties of astrocyte endfeet is their enrichment in gap junction protein connexins 43 and 30 (Cx43 and Cx30)(More)
This article presents a formal semantics for UML based on algebraic abstract types. Currently we only consider class diagrams and object diagrams. These diagrams include class structure, association, car-dinality expression, constraint, instance as well as specialization relationship. We give a formal semantics for each of these elements by interpreting the(More)
We address in this article the description and usage of component protocols viewed as specific services. In addition to inter-component service composition, our Kmelia component model supports vertical struc-turing mechanisms that allow service composition inside a component. The structuring mechanisms (namely state annotation and transition annotation) are(More)
Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) is one of the approaches to master the development of large scale software. In this setting, the verification concern is still a challenge. The current work addresses the composability of components and their services. A component model (Kmelia) is introduced; an associated formalism, simple but expressive is(More)
An efficient mechanism for method lookup is cs-scntial in any reasonable implementation of a cluss-based object-oriented language. One tcchniquc, static caches, provide constant time lookup, but consumes cx-cessive memory. To alleviate the memory consumption problem many systems USC a coloring schcmc that allows cache rows to be shared and thus reduces the(More)
The in situ mouse brain perfusion method for measuring blood-brain barrier permeability was adapted to assess transport of solutes at the blood-brain and blood-eye barriers. The procedure was checked with radiolabeled markers in oxygenated bicarbonate-buffered fluid infused for 30 to 120 sec via a carotid artery. Vascular flow estimated with diazepam was(More)
Nicotine, the main tobacco alkaloid leading to smoking dependence, rapidly crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to become concentrated in the brain. Recently, it has been shown that nicotine interacts with some organic cation transporters (OCT), but their influence at the BBB has not yet been assessed in vivo. In this study, we characterized the transport(More)
In this article, we describe the specification of software architectures with Kmelia, a component model based on services. Using Kmelia one can define a simple model of architecture that supports the description of the components and their interactions, the reasonning on incomplete models and refinement. More precisely we study the following issues: i) the(More)