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The chain-structured long short-term memory (LSTM) has showed to be effective in a wide range of problems such as speech recognition and machine translation. In this paper, we propose to extend it to tree structures, in which a memory cell can reflect the history memories of multiple child cells or multiple descendant cells in a recursive process. We call(More)
The chain-structured long short-term memory (LSTM) has showed to be effective in a wide range of problems such as speech recognition and machine translation. In this paper, we propose to extend it to tree structures, in which a memory cell can reflect the history memories of multiple child cells or multiple descendant cells in a recursive process. We call(More)
Here for the first time we present a shared task on detecting stance from tweets: given a tweet and a target entity (person, organization , etc.), automatic natural language systems must determine whether the tweeter is in favor of the given target, against the given target, or whether neither inference is likely. The target of interest may or may not be(More)
We can often detect from a person’s utterances whether he or she is in favor of or against a given target entity—one’s stance toward the target. However, a person may express the same stance toward a target by using negative or positive language. Here for the first time we present a dataset of tweet–target pairs annotated for both(More)
We can often detect from a person’s utterances whether he/she is in favor of or against a given target entity (a product, topic, another person, etc.). Here for the first time we present a dataset of tweets annotated for whether the tweeter is in favor of or against pre-chosen targets of interest—their stance. The targets of interest may or may not be(More)
Imbalanced data, where the number of instances of one class is much higher than the others, are frequent in many domains such as fraud detection, telecommunications management, oil spill detection and text classification. Traditional classifiers do not perform well when considering data that are susceptible to both within-class and between-class imbalances.(More)
Argumentation mining and stance classification were recently introduced as interesting tasks in text mining. In this paper, a novel framework for argument tagging based on topic modeling is proposed. Unlike other machine learning approaches for argument tagging which often require large set of labeled data, the proposed model is minimally supervised and(More)
Recurrent neural networks, particularly long short-term memory (LSTM), have recently shown to be very effective in a wide range of sequence modeling problems, core to which is effective learning of distributed representation for subsequences as well as the sequences they form. An assumption in almost all the previous models, however, posits that the learned(More)
One may express favor (or disfavor) towards a target by using positive or negative language. Here for the first time we present a dataset of tweets annotated for whether the tweeter is in favor of or against pre-chosen targets, as well as for sentiment. These targets may or may not be referred to in the tweets, and they may or may not be the target of(More)