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Attempts to improve the selectivity of anti-cancer agents by conjugating them to antibodies directed at tumour associated antigens have demonstrated tumour localisation but only limited therapeutic success. We report here the advantage of a 2-stage approach in which the first component combines the selective delivery of antibody with a capability to(More)
Three novel prodrugs have been designed for use as anticancer agents. Each is a bifunctional alkylating agent which has been protected to form a relatively inactive prodrug. They are designed to be activated to their corresponding alkylating agents at a tumour site by prior administration of an antitumour antibody conjugated to the bacterial enzyme(More)
Antibody fragments can be isolated rapidly using techniques such as phage display and can be expressed to high levels in microbial systems. However, to date such antibody fragments have been of limited use for many therapeutic applications because they are rapidly cleared from the body. We present a strategy for the site-specific chemical modification of(More)
Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being used as therapeutic agents in a wide range of indications, including oncology, inflammation and infectious disease. In most cases the basis of the therapeutic function is the high degree of specificity and affinity the antibody-based drug has for its target antigen. However, the mechanism of action (MOA), the way(More)
Antibody fragments can be expressed at a high level in microbial systems, but they may have limited therapeutic value because they are rapidly eliminated from the body. We demonstrate here that site-specific conjugation or binding of bacterially derived Fab' to the long-lived protein serum albumin allows full retention of the antibody's binding(More)
The monoclonal antibody A33 recognises a tumour-associated antigen on human colorectal carcinoma, and has undergone preliminary evaluation in the clinic where selective localisation to hepatic metastases has been demonstrated [Welt et al. (1994) J. Clin. Oncol. 12, 1561-1571]. A33 and an A33 tri-fab fragment (TFM) were labelled with 90Y via a stable(More)
A humanised IgG1/k version of A33 (hA33) has been constructed and expressed with yields up to 700 mg l-1 in mouse myeloma NS0 cells in suspension culture. The equilibrium dissociation constant of hA33 (KD = 1.3 nM) was shown to be equivalent to that of the murine antibody in a cell-binding assay. hA33 labelled with yttrium-90 using the macrocyclic chelator(More)
Monoclonal anti-CEA antibody, A5B7, and its fragments conjugated to CPG2 localize to a peak concentration in the LS174T xenografts within 24 h after injection, but enzyme activity persists in plasma such that prodrug injection has to be delayed for 5-6 days in order to avoid toxicity. Injection of prodrug at this time did not result in growth delay of this(More)
The synthesis of three novel prodrugs, 4-[bis[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (7), 4-[(2-chloroethyl)[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (8), and 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (9), for use as anticancer agents, is described here. Each is a bifunctional alkylating agent in which the activating effect of the(More)
Following an extensive series of studies in nude mice with human xenografts a pilot scale clinical trial of antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy has been initiated. The principle is to activate a relatively inert prodrug to an active cytotoxin by a tumour located enzyme. In the first stage of the study a prodrug para-N-(mono-2-chloroethyl(More)