Paolo Ravazzani

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This paper investigates the spatial distribution of the electric field and of the current density in the brain tissues induced by transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex. A numerical method was applied on a realistic human head model to calculate these field distributions in different brain structures, such as the cortex, the(More)
Knowledge of the electric field that is induced in the brain or the limbs is of importance in magnetic stimulation of the nervous system. Here, an analytical model based on the reciprocity theorem is used to compare the induced electric field in unbounded, semi-infinite, spherical, and cylinder-like volume conductors. Typical stimulation coil arrangements(More)
Emissions evoked by broad-band stimuli, such as clicks, show a 'frequency dispersion' reminiscent of the place-frequency distribution along the cochlea. Analysis of the time-frequency properties of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) is therefore of considerable interest due to their close relation with cochlear mechanisms. In particular,(More)
Time-frequency distribution methods are being widely used for the analysis of a variety of biomedical signals. Recently, they have been applied also to study otoacoustic emissions (OAE's), the active acoustic response of the hearing end organ. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAE's) are time-varying signals with a clear frequency dispersion along with(More)
Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are time-varying signals with a clear frequency dispersion along with the time axis. Analysis of CEOAEs is of considerable interest due to their close relation with cochlear mechanisms. The particular structure of CEOAEs requires a time-frequency method with both a satisfactory time and frequency resolution. In(More)
The activating function of peripheral nerves in magnetic stimulation is thought to be the gradient of the induced electric field component parallel to the nerve. This implies that there are several orientations of the coil that should not excite nerves. We show that these orientations, however, often yield high-amplitude and even supramaximal muscle(More)
In this study, 26 healthy young volunteers were submitted to 900 MHz (2 W) GSM cellular phone exposure and to sham exposure in separate sessions. The study was designed to assess cardiac regulatory mechanism in different autonomic nervous system (ANS) states during exposure to low-intensity EMF. Rest-to-stand protocol was applied to evaluate ANS in quiet(More)
Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the(More)
Abstract The European project EMFnEAR was undertaken to assess potential changes in human auditory function after a short-term exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) mobile phones. Participants were healthy young adults with no hearing or ear disorders. Auditory function was assessed(More)