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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in peripheral tolerance. However, regulatory pathways initiated by the interactions of CTLA-4 with B7 counterligands expressed on antigen-presenting cells are not completely understood. We show here that long-term survival of pancreatic islet allografts induced by the soluble fusion(More)
Endogenous tryptophan (Trp) metabolites have an important role in mammalian gut immune homeostasis, yet the potential contribution of Trp metabolites from resident microbiota has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we describe a metabolic pathway whereby Trp metabolites from the microbiota balance mucosal reactivity in mice. Switching from sugar to(More)
Immunoregulatory antigen-presenting cells (APC) play an important role in maintaining T cell homeostasis and self-tolerance. In particular, recent evidence demonstrates a role for inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryptophan catabolism involving the activity of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Dendritic cells (DC) have also been(More)
High amounts of glutamate are found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease marked by progressive demyelination. Glutamate might affect neuroinflammation via effects on immune cells. Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a(More)
Tryptophan catabolism is a tolerogenic effector system in regulatory T cell function, yet the general mechanisms whereby tryptophan catabolism affects T cell responses remain unclear. We provide evidence that the short-term, combined effects of tryptophan deprivation and tryptophan catabolites result in GCN2 kinase-dependent down-regulation of the TCR(More)
The immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses T-cell responses and promotes immune tolerance in mammalian pregnancy, tumour resistance, chronic infection, autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. 'Reverse signalling' and 'non-canonical activation' of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) characterize the(More)
RATIONALE The IL-23-IL-17A-producing CD4(+) T-cell (Th17 cell) axis plays an important role in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the IL-23-Th17 cell axis in the regulation of allergic airway inflammation is still largely unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine the role of IL-23 and Th17 cells in(More)
We analyzed the expression of an IL-12 receptor by fresh dendritic cells (DC) and a DC line. Using RT-PCR, RNAse protection, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis, we found that DC possess an IL-12 receptor with beta1 subunit (downstream box 1)-related differences from that on T cells. IL-12 signaling through this receptor involved members of(More)
In this study, using a soluble CD200-Ig fusion protein, we provide evidence that murine dendritic cells (DCs) possess a functional CD200R, whose engagement results in the reinforcement or appearance of immunosuppressive properties in these cells. In particular, the plasmacytoid subset (CD11c+B220+120G8+) of splenic DCs (pDCs) is induced by CD200-Ig to(More)
IL-9 is a T cell-derived cytokine that, similar to the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, has been implicated in the response to parasitic infections, allergy, and inflammatory processes. Because both IL-4 and IL-10 can confer protection to mice from septic shock, we investigated whether IL-9 may also be capable of conferring resistance on recipients of an(More)