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High amounts of glutamate are found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease marked by progressive demyelination. Glutamate might affect neuroinflammation via effects on immune cells. Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor regulating a wide range of biological and toxicological effects. Metabolites of L-tryptophan are able to bind and activate AhR, providing a link between tryptophan catabolism and a novel mechanism of protective tolerance, referred to as "disease tolerance". The notion that pharmacologic modulation of(More)
Disease tolerance is the ability of the host to reduce the effect of infection on host fitness. Analysis of disease tolerance pathways could provide new approaches for treating infections and other inflammatory diseases. Typically, an initial exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a state of refractoriness to further LPS challenge (endotoxin(More)
Half a century ago, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was first described as a disease fatally affecting the ability of children to survive infections. Various milestone discoveries have since been made, from an insufficient ability of patients' leucocytes to kill microbes to the underlying genetic abnormalities. In this inherited disorder, phagocytes(More)
To define the role of interleukin (IL)6 in Candida albicans infection, IL-6 deficient mice were assessed for susceptibility to systemic or gastrointestinal infection, as well as for parameters of elicited T helper cell (Th) immunity. IL-6-deficient mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to either type of infection caused by virulent C. albicans. In(More)
An interleukin 4 (IL-4)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) was administered to mice infected systemically with the yeast Candida albicans, and the animals were monitored for mortality, development of delayed-type hypersensitivity, production of antibodies of different isotypes, release of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in vitro by(More)
The predisposition of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to develop autoimmunity reflects deficiencies in both peripheral and central tolerance. Several defects have been described in these mice, among which aberrant antigen-presenting cell function and peroxynitrite formation. Prediabetes and diabetes in NOD mice have been targeted with different outcomes by a(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) sense saprophytic yeast and pathogenic, filamentous forms of Candida albicans in a specific way, resulting in disparate patterns of DC and T(h) cell activation. Using human and murine DC, such disparate patterns could be traced to the exploitation of distinct recognition receptors. Although usage of mannose receptors led to protective(More)
Prediabetes and diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have been targeted by a variety of immunotherapies, including the use of a soluble form of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The cytokine, however, fails to activate tolerogenic properties in dendritic cells (DCs) from highly susceptible female mice early in(More)