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High amounts of glutamate are found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease marked by progressive demyelination. Glutamate might affect neuroinflammation via effects on immune cells. Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a(More)
TLRs contribute to the inflammatory response in fungal infections. Although inflammation is an essential component of the protective response to fungi, its dysregulation may significantly worsen fungal diseases. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Toll IL-1R8 (TIR8)/single Ig IL-1-related receptor, a member of the IL-1R family acting as a negative(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor regulating a wide range of biological and toxicological effects. Metabolites of L-tryptophan are able to bind and activate AhR, providing a link between tryptophan catabolism and a novel mechanism of protective tolerance, referred to as "disease tolerance". The notion that pharmacologic modulation of(More)
Half a century ago, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was first described as a disease fatally affecting the ability of children to survive infections. Various milestone discoveries have since been made, from an insufficient ability of patients' leucocytes to kill microbes to the underlying genetic abnormalities. In this inherited disorder, phagocytes(More)
Disease tolerance is the ability of the host to reduce the effect of infection on host fitness. Analysis of disease tolerance pathways could provide new approaches for treating infections and other inflammatory diseases. Typically, an initial exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a state of refractoriness to further LPS challenge (endotoxin(More)
IL-23 is a recently discovered heterodimeric cytokine that shares biological properties with proinflammatory cytokines. The biologically active heterodimer consists of p19 and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 has been shown to possess biological activities on T cells that are similar as well distinct from those of IL-12. We have constructed single-chain(More)
To define the role of interleukin (IL)6 in Candida albicans infection, IL-6 deficient mice were assessed for susceptibility to systemic or gastrointestinal infection, as well as for parameters of elicited T helper cell (Th) immunity. IL-6-deficient mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to either type of infection caused by virulent C. albicans. In(More)
Largely viewed as proinflammatory, innate responses combine with adaptive immunity to generate the most effective form of antifungal resistance, and T cells exercise feedback control over diverse effects of inflammation on infection. Some degree of inflammation is required for protection, particularly in mucosal tissues, during the transitional response(More)
The predisposition of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to develop autoimmunity reflects deficiencies in both peripheral and central tolerance. Several defects have been described in these mice, among which aberrant antigen-presenting cell function and peroxynitrite formation. Prediabetes and diabetes in NOD mice have been targeted with different outcomes by a(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) tryptophan catabolism has emerged in recent years as a major mechanism of peripheral tolerance. However, there are features of this mechanism, initiated by IDO, that are still unclear, including the role of enzymes that are downstream of IDO in the kynurenine pathway and the role of the associated production of kynurenines. In this(More)