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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in peripheral tolerance. However, regulatory pathways initiated by the interactions of CTLA-4 with B7 counterligands expressed on antigen-presenting cells are not completely understood. We show here that long-term survival of pancreatic islet allografts induced by the soluble fusion(More)
Regulatory T (T(R)) cells manifest constitutive expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), but the function of CTLA-4 in mediating the regulatory function of T(R) cells is unclear. We show here that mouse CD4+CD25+ cells, either resting or induced to overexpress CTLA-4 by treatment with antibody to CD3, initiated tryptophan(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme that, expressed by different cell types, has regulatory effects on T cells resulting from tryptophan depletion in specific local tissue microenvironments. Different mechanisms, however, might contribute to IDO-dependent immune regulation. We show here that tryptophan metabolites in the(More)
Endogenous tryptophan (Trp) metabolites have an important role in mammalian gut immune homeostasis, yet the potential contribution of Trp metabolites from resident microbiota has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we describe a metabolic pathway whereby Trp metabolites from the microbiota balance mucosal reactivity in mice. Switching from sugar to(More)
Immunoregulatory antigen-presenting cells (APC) play an important role in maintaining T cell homeostasis and self-tolerance. In particular, recent evidence demonstrates a role for inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryptophan catabolism involving the activity of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Dendritic cells (DC) have also been(More)
Tryptophan catabolism is a tolerogenic effector system in regulatory T cell function, yet the general mechanisms whereby tryptophan catabolism affects T cell responses remain unclear. We provide evidence that the short-term, combined effects of tryptophan deprivation and tryptophan catabolites result in GCN2 kinase-dependent down-regulation of the TCR(More)
RATIONALE The IL-23-IL-17A-producing CD4(+) T-cell (Th17 cell) axis plays an important role in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the IL-23-Th17 cell axis in the regulation of allergic airway inflammation is still largely unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine the role of IL-23 and Th17 cells in(More)
The immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses T-cell responses and promotes immune tolerance in mammalian pregnancy, tumour resistance, chronic infection, autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. 'Reverse signalling' and 'non-canonical activation' of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) characterize the(More)
In this study, using a soluble CD200-Ig fusion protein, we provide evidence that murine dendritic cells (DCs) possess a functional CD200R, whose engagement results in the reinforcement or appearance of immunosuppressive properties in these cells. In particular, the plasmacytoid subset (CD11c+B220+120G8+) of splenic DCs (pDCs) is induced by CD200-Ig to(More)