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BACKGROUND Tissue kallikrein (tK) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are potent angiogenic agents. Upregulation of tK or VEGF was documented in animal models of acute ischemia, yet it remains unknown whether these endothelial cell mitogens are overexpressed in chronic peripheral vascular insufficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS Circulating tK and(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular growth factors are upregulated in stroke patients, but it remains unknown if they correlate with carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS A case-control study was conducted to determine: (1) possible association between biomarkers of angiogenesis or inflammation and carotid stenosis; and (2) the impact of revascularization on the(More)
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