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The spatial relation between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in living HeLa cells was analyzed at high resolution in three dimensions with two differently colored, specifically targeted green fluorescent proteins. Numerous close contacts were observed between these organelles, and mitochondria in situ formed a largely interconnected, dynamic(More)
In recent years, mitochondria have emerged as important targets of agonist-dependent increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Here, we analyzed the significance of Ca(2+) signals for the modulation of organelle function by directly measuring mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP levels ([ATP](m) and [ATP](c), respectively) with specifically targeted chimeras(More)
In this study we have generated a EYFP targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space (MIMS-EYFP) to determine for the first time the pH within this compartment. The fragment encoding HAI-tagged EYFP was fused with the C-terminus of glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase, an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Human ECV304 cells transiently(More)
Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer(More)
There is a growing consensus that the various forms of cell death (necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy) are not separated by strict boundaries, but rather share molecular effectors and signaling routes. Among the latter, a clear role is played by calcium (Ca(2+)), the ubiquitous second messenger involved in the control of a broad variety of physiological(More)
Cadmium, a toxic environmental contaminant, exerts adverse effects on different cellular pathways such as cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis. In particular, the modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis seems to have an important role during Cd(2+) injury, but the precise assessment of Ca(2+) signalling still remains poorly understood. We used(More)
The mechanism of action of the anti-apoptotic oncogene Bcl-2 is still largely obscure. We have recently shown that the overexpression of Bcl-2 in HeLa cells reduces the Ca2+ concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]er) by increasing the passive Ca2+ leak from the organelle. To investigate whether this Ca2+ depletion is part of the mechanism of(More)
The heterogenous subcellular distribution of a wide array of channels, pumps and exchangers allows extracellular stimuli to induce increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) with highly defined spatial and temporal patterns, that in turn induce specific cellular responses (e.g. contraction, secretion, proliferation or cell death). In this(More)
In the past few years, intracellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, the nucleus and the mitochondria, have emerged as key determinants in the generation and transduction of Ca2+ signals of high spatio-temporal complexity. Little is known about the Golgi apparatus, despite the fact that Ca2+ within its lumen controls essential processes, such(More)
Although the physiological relevance of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis is widely accepted, no information is yet available on the molecular identity of the proteins involved in this process. Here we analyzed the role of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane in the transmission of Ca2+ signals between the ER and(More)