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New insulin-secreting cell lines (INS-1 and INS-2) were established from cells isolated from an x-ray-induced rat transplantable insulinoma. The continuous growth of these cells was found to be dependent on the reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanol. Removal of this thiol compound caused a 15-fold drop in total cellular glutathione levels. These cells(More)
The distribution of connexin36 (Cx36) in the adult rat brain and retina has been analysed at the protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (in situ hybridization) level. Cx36 immunoreactivity, consisting primarily of round or elongated puncta, is highly enriched in specific brain regions (inferior olive and the olfactory bulb), in the retina, in the anterior(More)
In response to many apoptotic stimuli, oligomerization of Bax is essential for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the ensuing release of cytochrome c. These events are accompanied by mitochondrial fission that appears to require Drp1, a large GTPase of the dynamin superfamily. Loss of Drp1 leads to decreased cytochrome c release by a(More)
By immunofluorescence on cytospin preparations and on semithin sections of mouse pancreatic buds, we have found glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-containing cells at embryonal day 10.5 (E 10.5) in dorsal buds and at E 11.5 in ventral buds. Insulin-containing cells appear in dorsal buds at E 11.5, and one to two days later in ventral buds.(More)
We have investigated the expression of three gap junction proteins and their corresponding mRNAs by secretory cells of a variety of endocrine and exocrine rat glands. By immunostaining cryostat sections (indirect immunofluorescence) with antibodies against connexins (Cx) 26, 32, and 43 and by hybridizing total glandular RNA (Northern blot) with cRNAs for(More)
OBJECTIVE Pancreatic beta-cells exposed to proinflammatory cytokines display alterations in gene expression resulting in defective insulin secretion and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs emerging as key regulators of gene expression. Here, we evaluated the contribution of microRNAs to cytokine-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity. RESEARCH DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Connexins are the protein subunits of intercellular gap junction channels. In mammals, they are encoded by a family of at least 15 genes, which show cell-type-specific but overlapping patterns of expression. Mice lacking connexin43 (Cx43) die postnatally from obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract of the heart. To discriminate between(More)
Clouston syndrome or hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare dominant genodermatosis characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, generalized alopecia and nail defects. The disease is caused by mutations in the human GJB6 gene which encodes the gap junction protein connexin30 (Cx30). To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying HED, we(More)
The yeast Sec23 protein is required in vivo and in vitro for transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. Ultrastructural localization of the Sec23p mammalian homologue (detected by antibody cross-reaction) in exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells shows a specific distribution to the cytoplasmic zone between the(More)
Previous studies have provided evidence for the transcripts of Cx43 and Cx45 within pancreatic islets. As of yet, however, it has proven difficult to unambiguously demonstrate the expression of these proteins by islet cells. We have investigated whether Cx36, a new connexin species recently identified in mammalian brain and retina, may also be expressed in(More)