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Immunoglobulin (Ig) class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) is thought to be highly dependent upon engagement of CD40 on B cells by CD40 ligand on T cells. We show here that dendritic cells up-regulate BLyS and APRIL upon exposure to interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma or CD40 ligand. In the presence of interleukin 10 (IL-10) or transforming growth factor-beta,(More)
BACKGROUND Until now, only imatinib and sunitinib have proven clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), but almost all metastatic GIST eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic or unresectable GIST(More)
BACKGROUND The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has evolved very rapidly in the last 4 years. The objectives of this international consensus meeting were to describe the optimal management procedures for patients with GIST in localized and advanced stages, as well as research issues for the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS A panel of(More)
BACKGROUND Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has single-agent activity in patients with advanced non-adipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma. We investigated the effect of pazopanib on progression-free survival in patients with metastatic non-adipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma after failure of standard chemotherapy. METHODS This phase 3 study was(More)
CONTEXT Sunitinib (sunitinib malate; SU11248; Sutent; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY) is a multitarget inhibitor of tyrosine kinases for the treatment of some human cancers. A myxedematous coma in a patient treated with sunitinib for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor was unexpectedly observed. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to evaluate the effect of sunitinib on(More)
BACKGROUND No effective therapeutic options for patients with unresectable imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumour are available. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, international trial to assess tolerability and anticancer efficacy of sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced(More)
AIMS To assess the antitumour activity, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of continuous daily sunitinib dosing in patients with imatinib-resistant/intolerant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and to assess morning dosing versus evening dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this open-label phase II study, patients were randomised to receive(More)
By substituting the H chain C region of IgM with that of IgG, IgA, or IgE, class switching enables Abs to acquire new effector functions that are crucial for the neutralization of invading pathogens. Class switching occurs through class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and usually requires engagement of CD40 on B cells by CD40 ligand on Ag-activated CD4(+) T(More)
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms arising from mesenchymal cells which encompass dozens of histological types and can occur in virtually any anatomic site. They form one of the principal groups of rare cancers in Europe as defined in the RARECARE project. We analysed 45,568 incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by(More)