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We report on the development of the F64L/S65T/T203Y/L231H GFP mutant (E2GFP) as an effective ratiometric pH indicator for intracellular studies. E2GFP shows two distinct spectral forms that are convertible upon pH changes both in excitation and in emission with pK close to 7.0. The excitation of the protein at 488 and 458 nm represents the best choice in(More)
A single-biomolecule optical toggle-switch is demonstrated based on a mutated green fluorescent protein (GFP). We have exploited molecular biology techniques to tailor GFP molecular structure and photophysical properties and give it optically-controlled bistability between two distinct states. We present optical control of the fluorescence dynamics with two(More)
Interaction between differentiating neurons and the extracellular environment guides the establishment of cell polarity during nervous system development. Developing neurons read the physical properties of the local substrate in a contact-dependent manner and retrieve essential guidance cues. In previous works we demonstrated that PC12 cell interaction with(More)
During development and regeneration of the mammalian nervous system, directional signals guide differentiating neurons toward their targets. Soluble neurotrophic molecules encode for preferential direction over long distances while the local topography is read by cells in a process requiring the establishment of focal adhesions. The mutual interaction(More)
Cells are exposed to specific directional physical signals determined by the micro/nano-environment that in vivo coexist with some degree of topographical noise. Particularly in the nervous system, cell contact sensing of the extracellular environment plays a primary role in defining neurite initiation and final brain wiring. Here we study neuronal cell(More)
BACKGROUND Catechin-dextran conjugates have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their anticancer activity against a range of cancer cells. Magnetic nanoparticles have the ability to concentrate therapeutically important drugs due to their magnetic-spatial control and provide opportunities for targeted drug delivery. PURPOSE Enhancement of the(More)
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