Learn More
The energy cost to swim a unit distance (C(sw)) is given by the ratio E/v where E is the net metabolic power and v is the swimming speed. The contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to E in swimming competitions is independent of swimming style, gender or skill and depends essentially upon the duration of the exercise. C(sw) is essentially(More)
Oxygen consumption (VO2) and blood lactate concentration were determined during constant-speed track running on 16 runners of intermediate level competing in middle distances (0.8-5.0 km). The energy cost of track running per unit distance (Cr) was then obtained from the ratio of steady-state VO2, corrected for lactate production, to speed; it was found to(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of the aerobic (Aer), anaerobic lactic (AnL) and alactic (AnAl) energy sources during each of the four laps of a 200 m front crawl race. Additionally, energy cost (C) and arm stroke efficiency were also computed. Ten international swimmers performed a 200 m front crawl swim, as well(More)
A novel apparatus, composed by a controllable treadmill, a computer, and an ultrasonic range finder, is here proposed to help investigation of many aspects of spontaneous locomotion. The acceleration or deceleration of the subject, detected by the sensor and processed by the computer, is used to accelerate or decelerate the treadmill in real time. The(More)
The energetics and mechanics of walking were investigated at different speeds, both at the freely chosen stride frequency (FCSF) and at imposed ones (up to +/- 40% of FCSF). Metabolic energy expenditure was minimized at FCSF for each speed. Motion analysis allowed to calculate: the mechanical internal work rate (Wint), needed to move the segments with(More)
The propelling efficiency of the arm stroke (etaP) was estimated in a group of 63 male and female subjects (9-59 years of age) of good technical skill, swimming the front crawl at sub-maximal speeds. etaP was calculated on the basis of values of speed (v), stroke frequency (SF) and shoulder-to-hand distance (l, calculated from measures of arm length and(More)
VO2max and best performance times (BPTs) obtained during maximal voluntary trials over 1, 2, 5, and 10 km from a stationary start were assessed in 10 elite cyclists. Steady-state VO2 and peak blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were also determined in the same subjects pedaling on a track at constant submaximal speeds. The energy cost of cycling (Cc, J.m-1)(More)
The aims of this study were: (i) to measure the exercise intensity (EI) of the most common water-based exercises (WE) at different movement frequencies (f1 = 1.8-2.0 Hz; f2 = 2.0-2.2 Hz; f3 = 2.2-2.4 Hz) and at a standardize movement's amplitude; (ii) to measure EI during a combination (MIX) of these WE. Five WE were selected: "running raising the knees(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate how fins with varying physical characteristics affect the energy cost and the efficiency of aquatic locomotion. Experiments were performed on ten college swimmers who were asked to swim the dolphin kick while using a monofin (MF) and to swim the front crawl kick with a small-flexible fin (SF), a large-stiff fin (LS)(More)
With the aim of computing a complete energy balance of front crawl, the energy cost per unit distance (C = Ev(-1), where E is the metabolic power and v is the speed) and the overall efficiency (eta(o) = W(tot)/C, where W(tot) is the mechanical work per unit distance) were calculated for subjects swimming with and without fins. In aquatic locomotion W(tot)(More)