Paola Zamparo

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Oxygen consumption (VO2) and blood lactate concentration were determined during constant-speed track running on 16 runners of intermediate level competing in middle distances (0.8-5.0 km). The energy cost of track running per unit distance (Cr) was then obtained from the ratio of steady-state VO2, corrected for lactate production, to speed; it was found to(More)
VO2max and best performance times (BPTs) obtained during maximal voluntary trials over 1, 2, 5, and 10 km from a stationary start were assessed in 10 elite cyclists. Steady-state VO2 and peak blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were also determined in the same subjects pedaling on a track at constant submaximal speeds. The energy cost of cycling (Cc, J.m-1)(More)
We measured the metabolic cost (C) and mechanical work of riding historic bicycles at different speeds: these bicycles included the Hobby Horse (1820s), the Boneshaker (1860s), the High Wheeler (1870s), the Rover (1880s), the Safety (1890s) and a modern bicycle (1980s) as a mean of comparison. The rolling resistance and air resistance of each vehicle were(More)
The energy cost of front-crawl swimming (Cs, kJ · m−1) at maximal voluntary speeds over distances of 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, and the underwater torque (T′) were assessed in nine young swimmers (three males and six females; 12–17 years old). Cs was calculated from the ratio of the total metabolic energy (E s, kJ) spent to the distance covered. E s was(More)
Two forces act on a human body motionless in water: weight (W) and buoyancy (B). They are applied to the center of mass (CM) and to the center of volume (CV) of the subject, respectively. CM and CV do not coincide; this generates a torque that is a measure of the tendency of the upper part of the body to rise, rotating around its center of mass. To quantify(More)
With the aim of computing a complete energy balance of front crawl, the energy cost per unit distance (C= Ėv−1, where Ė is the metabolic power and v is the speed) and the overall efficiency (ηo=Wtot/C, where Wtot is the mechanical work per unit distance) were calculated for subjects swimming with and without fins. In aquatic locomotion Wtot is given by the(More)
The propelling efficiency of the arm stroke (η P) was estimated in a group of 63 male and female subjects (9–59 years of age) of good technical skill, swimming the front crawl at sub-maximal speeds. η P was calculated on the basis of values of speed (v), stroke frequency (SF) and shoulder-to-hand distance (l, calculated from measures of arm length and elbow(More)
The maximal power of the lower limbs was determined in four astronauts (age 37-53 yr) 1) during maximal pushes of approximately 250 ms on force platforms ["maximal explosive power" (MEP)] or 2) during all-out bouts of 6-7 s on an isokinetic cycloergometer [pedal frequency 1 Hz: maximal cycling power (MCP)]. The measurements were done before and immediately(More)
The aim of the present study was to quantify the improvements in the economy and efficiency of surface swimming brought about by the use of fins over a range of speeds (v) that could be sustained aerobically. At comparable speeds, the energy cost (C) when swimming with fins was about 40 % lower than when swimming without them; when compared at the same(More)
A novel apparatus, composed by a controllable treadmill, a computer, and an ultrasonic range finder, is here proposed to help investigation of many aspects of spontaneous locomotion. The acceleration or deceleration of the subject, detected by the sensor and processed by the computer, is used to accelerate or decelerate the treadmill in real time. The(More)