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With the aim of computing a complete energy balance of front crawl, the energy cost per unit distance (C = Ev(-1), where E is the metabolic power and v is the speed) and the overall efficiency (eta(o) = W(tot)/C, where W(tot) is the mechanical work per unit distance) were calculated for subjects swimming with and without fins. In aquatic locomotion W(tot)(More)
The energy cost to swim a unit distance (C(sw)) is given by the ratio E/v where E is the net metabolic power and v is the swimming speed. The contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to E in swimming competitions is independent of swimming style, gender or skill and depends essentially upon the duration of the exercise. C(sw) is essentially(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate how fins with varying physical characteristics affect the energy cost and the efficiency of aquatic locomotion. Experiments were performed on ten college swimmers who were asked to swim the dolphin kick while using a monofin (MF) and to swim the front crawl kick with a small-flexible fin (SF), a large-stiff fin (LS)(More)
The propelling efficiency of the arm stroke (etaP) was estimated in a group of 63 male and female subjects (9-59 years of age) of good technical skill, swimming the front crawl at sub-maximal speeds. etaP was calculated on the basis of values of speed (v), stroke frequency (SF) and shoulder-to-hand distance (l, calculated from measures of arm length and(More)
The aim of the present study was to quantify the improvements in the economy and efficiency of surface swimming brought about by the use of fins over a range of speeds (v) that could be sustained aerobically. At comparable speeds, the energy cost (C) when swimming with fins was about 40 % lower than when swimming without them; when compared at the same(More)
The energy cost of front-crawl swimming (Cs, kJ x m(-1)) at maximal voluntary speeds over distances of 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, and the underwater torque (T') were assessed in nine young swimmers (three males and six females; 12-17 years old). Cs was calculated from the ratio of the total metabolic energy (Es, kJ) spent to the distance covered. Es was(More)
A novel apparatus, composed by a controllable treadmill, a computer, and an ultrasonic range finder, is here proposed to help investigation of many aspects of spontaneous locomotion. The acceleration or deceleration of the subject, detected by the sensor and processed by the computer, is used to accelerate or decelerate the treadmill in real time. The(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of trunk incline (TI) and projected frontal area (A(eff)) in determining drag during active/passive measurements. Active drag (D(a)) was measured in competitive swimmers at speeds from 0.6 to 1.4 m s(-1); speed specific drag (D(a)/v(2)) was found to decrease as a function of v (P < 0.001) to indicate that(More)
To estimate the anaerobic alactic contribution in a 200 m middle distance swimming trial by means of two different methods based: (1) on the fast component of the $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{ 2} $$ off-kinetics (Anarecovery) and (2) on the kinetics of maximal phosphocreatine splitting in the contracting muscle (Anapcr). Ten elite male swimmers performed a 200 m(More)
The aim of this study was to compare different measurement techniques (indirect calorimetry, IC; heart rate monitoring, HR; an activity monitoring system, AH; rates of perceived exertion, RPE) to estimate physical activity intensity (light, moderate, vigorous) during water-based aerobic exercises (WE). Twelve healthy young women performed five common WE of(More)