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Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using(More)
Vaccine strategies for treatment of human papillomavirus-induced cer-vical cancer are based on either the recombinant E7 fusion oncoprotein or E7 CTL peptides. The therapeutic potential of the E7-based vaccine depends on the use of different adjuvants. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of the human papillomavirus 16 E7 protein in(More)
BACKGROUND Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer and are also involved in the development of other tumours (skin, head and neck). Serological survey of the HPV infections is important to better elucidate their natural history and to disclose antigen determinants useful for vaccine development. At present, the(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the Toscana (TOS) virus M RNA segment contains a single major open reading frame in the viral-complementary sequence, which can encode a polyprotein of 1339 amino acids. To map the TOS M segment product(s), different regions of the putative M polypeptide were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, which were(More)
Waterborne exposure to human viruses through contact with sewage-contaminated water environments can result in infections associated with a wide range of illnesses. Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most commonly encountered manifestations of waterborne viral illness. Respiratory diseases, neurological diseases and paralysis can also occur. Whether viral(More)
BACKGROUND The HPV16 E7 protein is both a tumour-specific and a tumour-rejection antigen, the ideal target for developing therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of HPV16-associated cancer and its precursor lesions. E7, which plays a key role in virus-associated carcinogenesis, contains 98 amino acids and has two finger-type structures which bind a Zn++ ion.(More)
Nested reverse transcription–PCR using degenerate primers was applied to amplify a 222-bp fragment of the large RNA segment of phleboviruses (9). The retrieved sequence was identical to sequences detected in sandfl ies collected in 2005 in the Adriatic coastal region of Albania; that strain was provisionally named Adria virus (10). Adria virus is distinct(More)
Since the first isolation of type E botulinum toxin-producing Clostridium butyricum from two infant botulism cases in Italy in 1984, this peculiar microorganism has been implicated in different forms of botulism worldwide. By applying particular pulsed-field gel electrophoresis run conditions, we were able to show for the first time that ten neurotoxigenic(More)
Viruses strongly associated with human cancer have recently been detected in urban sewages and other water environments worldwide. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), a newly discovered, potentially oncogenic human virus, in urban sewage samples collected at wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) in(More)
We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut), which is an(More)