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This paper investigates whether the distinction between patent citations added by the inventor or the examiner is relevant for the issue of geographical concentration of knowledge flows (as embodied in citations). The distinction between inventor and examiner citations enables us to work with a more refined citation indicator of knowledge flows. We use(More)
FDI and its role in economic development: Do we need a new agenda? Earlier drafts of the papers included in this special issue were presented at a workshop organised by The Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture (TIK) at the University of Oslo, Understanding FDI-Assisted Economic Development from the 22nd to the 25th May 2003. We gratefully(More)
Open innovation often requires wholesale changes to the nature of R&D. However, academic research and managerial practice have paid little attention to the challenges that individuals face in the daily pursuit of open innovation. As a result, there is little understanding of how individuals cope with open innovation, and which organizational practices can(More)
This paper examines the extent of the 'home advantage' effect in the USPTO and the EPO patent data and in the OECD triadic patent families. By comparing a set of internationalisation indicators for a sample of European, US and Japanese MNEs it finds that, contrary to what is often assumed, this effect is not only present in the USPTO but also in the EPO.(More)
This paper examines the knowledge bases of the world's largest pharmaceuticals groups by sales. It puts forward the concepts of knowledge breadth and depth as the relevant dimensions along which knowledge bases can be mapped. Breadth is studied by analysing the evolution of specialisation by scientific field over time. It hints at the widening range of(More)
We wish to thank Wilfred Schoenmakers for making available the data on linkages within multinational groups. Paola Criscuolo also acknowledges funding from the European Commission Marie Curie Fellowships. Abstract This paper examines the phenomenon of home base augmenting (HBA) R&D and home base exploiting (HBE) R&D. It has three novelties. First, we argue(More)
One hundred and eighty-nine patients with acute cholecystitis or cholangitis requiring antibacterial therapy and surgery were randomly allocated in a prospective open study to receive either iv or oral pefloxacin (800 mg per day) or a combination of iv or oral ampicillin (4 g per day) and gentamicin (240 mg per day im). Ninety-two patients had to be(More)
Understanding absorptive capacities in an " innovation Systems " context: consequences for economic and employment growth. Abstract: This paper seeks to broaden our understanding of the concept underlying absorptive capacity at the macro –level, paying particular attention to the growth and development perspectives. We provide definitions of absorptive and(More)
Using a balanced panel of firm-level data on the manufacturing industry in France, Italy and Spain over the 1993-1997 period, this paper examines the impact of foreign presence on the productivity of domestic enterprises. We find positive and significant externalities on Italian firms and negative or non-significant effects on Spanish and French firms. A(More)