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Several neuropeptide systems in the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP), control food intake. Peptides derived from proSAAS, a precursor implicated in the regulation of body weight, also control food intake. GPR171 is a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) for BigLEN(More)
The idea of sodium ions altering G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand binding and signaling was first suggested for opioid receptors (ORs) in the 1970s and subsequently extended to other GPCRs. Recently published ultra-high-resolution crystal structures of GPCRs, including that of the δ-OR subtype, have started to shed light on the mechanism underlying(More)
Mutations of CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane Conductance Regulator), a membrane protein expressed in the epithelium that forms a chloride channel, cause a chronic, developmental and hereditary disease, known as Cystic Fibrosis. The most common mutation is the deletion of F508, a residue present in the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1). We studied(More)
MOTIVATION A large fraction of the entries contained in the Protein Data Bank describe proteins in complex with low molecular weight molecules such as physiological compounds or synthetic drugs. In many cases, the same molecule is found in distinct protein-ligand complexes. There is an increasing interest in Medicinal Chemistry in comparing protein binding(More)
Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the(More)
Small molecules used in fragment-based drug discovery form multiple, promiscuous binding complexes difficult to capture experimentally. Here, we identify such binding poses and their associated energetics and kinetics using molecular dynamics simulations on AmpC β-lactamase. Only one of the crystallographic binding poses was found to be thermodynamically(More)
Our main objective was to compile a data set of high-quality protein-fragment complexes and make it publicly available. Once assembled, the data set was challenged using docking procedures to address the following questions: (i) Can molecular docking correctly reproduce the experimentally solved structures? (ii) How thorough must the sampling be to(More)
Fragment-based methods have emerged in the last two decades as alternatives to traditional high throughput screenings for the identification of chemical starting points in drug discovery. One arguable yet popular assumption about fragment-based design is that the fragment binding mode remains conserved upon chemical expansion. For instance, the question of(More)
Cumulative evidence strongly supports that the amyloid and tau hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, but concomitantly contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the development of multitarget drugs which are involved in both pathways might represent a promising therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, reported here in is the discovery of(More)
The multitarget approach has gained increasing acceptance as a useful tool to address complex and multifactorial maladies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The concurrent inhibition of the validated AD targets β-secretase (BACE-1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) by attacking both β-amyloid and tau protein cascades has been identified as a promising(More)