Panos A Stathopoulos

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The central nervous system (CNS) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is the site where disease pathology is evident. Damaged CNS tissue is commonly associated with immune cell infiltration. This infiltrate often includes B cells that are found in multiple locations throughout the CNS, including the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), parenchyma, and the(More)
Mounting evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to the pathogenesis of demyelination in the PNS and CNS. Rapid reversal of electrophysiological blockade after plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for acute or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is more likely to result from removal or neutralization of an antibody(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypical autoimmune disease that is among the few for which the target Ag and the pathogenic autoantibodies are clearly defined. The pathology of the disease is affected by autoantibodies directed toward the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Mature, Ag-experienced B cells rely on the action of Th cells to produce these(More)
Randomized controlled treatment trials of autoimmune neurologic disorders are generally lacking and data pertaining to treatment are mostly derived from expert opinion, large case series, and anecdotal reports. The treatment of autoimmune neurologic disorders comprises oncologic therapy (where appropriate) and immunotherapy. In this chapter, we first(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypical B cell-mediated autoimmune disease affecting 20-50 people per 100,000. The majority of patients fall into two clinically distinguishable types based on whether they produce autoantibodies targeting the acetylcholine receptor (AChR-MG) or muscle specific kinase (MuSK-MG). The autoantibodies are pathogenic, but whether(More)
OBJECTIVE Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition in which neurotransmission is impaired by binding of autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AChR) or, in a minority of patients, to muscle specific kinase (MuSK). There are differences in the dominant IgG subclass, pathogenic mechanisms, and treatment responses between the two MG subtypes (AChR(More)
Importance Myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission, is treated by an array of immunotherapeutics, many of which are nonspecific. Even with current therapies, a subset of patients has medically refractory MG. The benefits of B-cell-targeted therapy with rituximab have been observed in MG; however, the duration of these(More)
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