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Using the complete genome sequences of 35 classical swine fever viruses (CSFV) representing all three genotypes and all three kinds of virulence, we analyzed synonymous codon usage and the relative dinucleotide abundance in CSFV. The general correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural(More)
Pneumonic plague is a highly virulent infectious disease with 100% mortality rate, and its causative organism Yersinia pestis poses a serious threat for deliberate use as a bioterror agent. Currently, there is no FDA approved vaccine against plague. The polymeric bacterial capsular protein F1, a key component of the currently tested bivalent subunit vaccine(More)
DNA vaccination is an effective means of eliciting both humoral and cellular immunity. Most of influenza vaccines targeted at hemagglutinin (HA) show efficient immunogenicity for protecting subjects against influenza virus infection. However, major antigenic variations of HA may facilitate the virus in developing resistance against such vaccines. DNA(More)
Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, which is a zoonotic disease that affects sheep, goats, wild small ruminants and humans. Shandong Province in East China is one of the main producing areas in China for sheep and goats. Here, we conducted epidemiological surveys in different areas in this Province, isolated three orf virus(More)
Chlamydophila pneumoniae AR39 is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes human acute and chronic respiratory tract diseases. One protein from C. pneumoniae AR39 was assigned as 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase (HBDC). Assays done with the purified oxygen-sensitive protein showed that the optimum pH and temperature were 7.5 and 30°C, respectively. The(More)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor-promoting properties of CAFs in gastric cancer remain unclear. Here, we show that CAFs isolated from gastric cancer produce significant amounts of interleukin-6 (IL-6). CAFs(More)
DNA vaccination is an effective means of eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. The hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein of influenza A virus is a major target of protective antibody responses induced by virus infection or by vaccination and is widely considered to be the antigen of choice for an influenza vaccine. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)(More)
The bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging machine consists of a molecular motor assembled at the portal vertex of an icosahedral head. The ATP-powered motor packages the 56-µm-long, 170-kb viral genome into 120 nm × 86 nm head to near crystalline density. We engineered this machine to deliver genes and proteins into mammalian cells. DNA molecules were translocated(More)
PURPOSE We believe it is important to uncover tinnitus subgroups to identify subsets of patients most likely to benefit from different treatments. We review strategies for subgrouping based on etiology, subjective reports, the audiogram, psychoacoustics, imaging, and cluster analysis. METHOD Preliminary results of a 2-step cluster analysis based on 246(More)