Pamela W. M. Kleikers

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals but also disease triggers; their relative excess (oxidative stress) or shortage (reductive stress) compared to reducing equivalents are potentially deleterious. This may explain why antioxidants fail to combat diseases that correlate with oxidative stress. Instead, targeting of disease-relevant enzymatic(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Oxidative stress, an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production versus consumption, may be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The only known enzymes solely dedicated to ROS generation are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases with their catalytic subunits (NOX). After the clinical failure of most(More)
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is crucial in the pathology of major cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Paradoxically, both the lack of oxygen during ischemia and the replenishment of oxygen during reperfusion can cause tissue injury. Clinical outcome is also determined by a third, post-reperfusion phase characterized by(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Stroke, a leading cause of death and disability, poses a substantial burden for patients, relatives, and our healthcare systems. Only one drug is approved for treating stroke, and more than 30 contraindications exclude its use in 90% of all patients. Thus, new treatments are urgently needed. In this review, we discuss oxidative stress as a(More)
Besides nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a third gaseous messenger that may play a role in controlling vascular tone and has been proposed to serve as an O(2) sensor. However, whether H(2)S is vasoactive in the ductus arteriosus (DA) has not yet been studied. We investigated, using wire myography, the mechanical(More)
As recently reviewed, 1026 neuroprotective drug candidates in stroke research have all failed on their road towards validation and clinical translation, reasons being quality issues in preclinical research and publication bias. Quality control guidelines for preclinical stroke studies have now been established. However, sufficient understanding of the(More)
In their detailed review ‘‘NADPH oxidases as therapeutic targets in ischemic stroke’’ [1], Kahles and Brandes discuss the pathological roles of NADPH oxidases in ischemic brain injury and the therapeutic implications. In agreement with the authors, we consider inhibition of NADPH oxidases as a promising strategy to treat ischemic stroke. As described in the(More)
Promising results have been reported in preclinical stroke target validation for pharmacological principles that disrupt the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-post-synaptic density protein-95-neuronal nitric oxide synthase complex. However, post-synaptic density protein-95 is also coupled to potentially neuroprotective mechanisms. As post-synaptic density(More)
Based on non-hypothesis-driven approaches genetic evidence suggests that diseases are interrelated differently to our current organ-based ontology. In fact, common effector mechanisms, when affected or triggered seem to produce pathophenotypes in diverse organs or co-morbidities. This will lead eventually to a revised disease nomenclature and opens up(More)
Ischemic injury represents the most frequent cause of death and disability, and it remains unclear why, of all body organs, the brain is most sensitive to hypoxia. In many tissues, type 4 NADPH oxidase is induced upon ischemia or hypoxia, converting oxygen to reactive oxygen species. Here, we show in mouse models of ischemia in the heart, brain, and(More)