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Rare species are typically considered to maintain low levels of genetic variation, and this view has been supported by several reviews of large numbers of isozyme studies. Although these reviews have provided valuable data on levels of variability in plant species in general, and rare species in particular, these broad overviews involve comparisons that may(More)
Angiosperms have dominated the Earth's vegetation since the mid-Cretaceous (90 million years ago), providing much of our food, fibre, medicine and timber, yet their origin and early evolution have remained enigmatic for over a century. One part of the enigma lies in the difficulty of identifying the earliest angiosperms; the other involves the uncertainty(More)
Regional phylogeographical studies involving co-distributed animal and plant species have been conducted for several areas, most notably for Europe and the Pacific Northwest of North America. Until recently, phylogeographical studies in unglaciated eastern North America have been largely limited to animals. As more studies emerge for diverse lineages(More)
In 1950, G. Ledyard Stebbins devoted two chapters of his book Variation and Evolution in Plants (Columbia Univ. Press, New York) to polyploidy, one on occurrence and nature and one on distribution and significance. Fifty years later, many of the questions Stebbins posed have not been answered, and many new questions have arisen. In this paper, we review(More)
Molecular studies of plants from the Pacific Northwest of North America suggest a recurrent pattern of genetic differentiation and geographic structuring. In each of five angiosperms and one fern species representing diverse life histories, cpDNA data indicate two clades of populations that are geographically structured. A northern group comprises(More)
Members of the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box subfamily are required for specifying the "floral state" by contributing to floral organ and meristem identity. SEP genes have not been detected in gymnosperms and seem to have originated since the lineage leading to extant angiosperms diverged from extant gymnosperms. Therefore, both functional and evolutionary(More)
Angiosperms are among the major terrestrial radiations of life and a model group for studying patterns and processes of diversification. As a tool for future comparative studies, we compiled a supertree of angiosperm families from published phylogenetic studies. Sequence data from the plastid rbcL gene were used to estimate relative timing of branching(More)
UNLABELLED PREMISE OF THE STUDY It has been 8 years since the last comprehensive analysis of divergence times across the angiosperms. Given recent methodological improvements in estimating divergence times, refined understanding of relationships among major angiosperm lineages, and the immense interest in using large angiosperm phylogenies to investigate(More)
A revised and updated classification for the families of the flowering plants is provided. Newly adopted orders include Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Gunnerales, Crossosomatales and Celastrales. Pertinent literature published since the first APG classification is included, such that many additional families are now placed in the phylogenetic scheme. Several(More)
Comparative biology requires a firm phylogenetic foundation to uncover and understand patterns of diversification and evaluate hypotheses of the processes responsible for these patterns. In the angiosperms, studies of diversification in floral form, stamen organization, reproductive biology, photosynthetic pathway, nitrogen-fixing symbioses and life(More)