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MOTIVATION Comparison of read depths from next-generation sequencing between cancer and normal cells makes the estimation of copy number alteration (CNA) possible, even at very low coverage. However, estimating CNA from patients' tumour samples poses considerable challenges due to infiltration with normal cells and aneuploid cancer genomes. Here we provide(More)
Cortical interneurons in rodents are generated in the ventral telencephalon and migrate tangentially into the cortex. This process requires the coordinated action of many intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we show that Robo1 and Robo2 receptor proteins are dynamically expressed throughout the period of corticogenesis and colocalize with interneuronal(More)
A new member of the NCAM family mapping to 3p12 has been isolated and predicted to be arranged in five immunoglobulin-like domains and three fibronectin-like domains which are particularly homologous to L1. There is a transmembrane domain and a long cytoplasmic region with no detectable homology to other sequences. Although less closely related to DCC,(More)
The use of next-generation sequencing technologies to produce genomic copy number data has recently been described. Most approaches, however, reply on optimal starting DNA, and are therefore unsuitable for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which largely precludes the analysis of many tumour series. We have sought to challenge(More)
Metagenomics, the study of microbial genomes within diverse environments, is a rapidly developing field. The identification of microbial sequences within a host organism enables the study of human intestinal, respiratory, and skin microbiota, and has allowed the identification of novel viruses in diseases such as Merkel cell carcinoma. There are few(More)
BACKGROUND Prognostic biomarkers aim to improve on the current inadequate method of histological assessment to identify patients with oral epithelial dysplasia at greatest risk of malignant transformation. We aimed to assess the prognostic ability of six protein biomarkers linked to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, including three(More)
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a mammalian bombesin-like peptide, has been shown to be an important autocrine growth factor for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, not all SCLC cell lines express the GRP gene or respond mitogenically to GRP stimulation, suggesting the exist ence of other autocrine pathways in this tumor. Neuromedin B (NMB), the(More)
MOTIVATION Current high-throughput sequencing has greatly transformed genome sequence analysis. In the context of very low-coverage sequencing (<0.1×), performing 'binning' or 'windowing' on mapped short sequences ('reads') is critical to extract genomic information of interest for further evaluation, such as copy-number alteration analysis. If the window(More)
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer and is dramatically increased in the setting of immunosuppression such as organ transplantation (Grulich et al. This magnitude of increase is similar to that seen in virus-related cancers, such as human herpesvirus-8 mediated Kaposi's sarcoma and Epstein-Barr(More)
The term 'field cancerization' is used to describe an epithelial surface that has a propensity to develop cancerous lesions, and in the case of the aerodigestive tract this is often as a result of chronic exposure to carcinogens in cigarette smoke 1, 2. The clinical endpoint is the development of multiple tumours, either simultaneously or sequentially in(More)