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This study characterized the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, autoantibodies specific for GM1 ganglioside (anti-GM1), IgG and IgM, and myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG), in the sera of infection-free, chronic (>12 months), traumatically injured(More)
A randomized double-blind dose-titration crossover trial of the safety and efficacy of oral fampridine-SR (sustained release 4-aminopyridine) was conducted on spinal cord injured (SCI) patients at two centers. Twenty-six patients (n = 26) with incomplete lesions completed the trial. These patients all had chronic (>2 years) and stable neurological deficits.(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a potassium channel blocking agent with the ability to restore conduction in demyelinated internodes of axons of the spinal cord. The present investigation sought to obtain electrophysiologic evidence of the effect of 4-AP in ameliorating central conduction deficits in a group of patients (n = 6) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a K+ channel blocking agent that enhances nerve conduction through areas of demyelination by prolonging the duration of the action potential and increasing the safety factor for conduction. We have investigated the effects of 4-AP (24 mg total dose-intravenous) in 6 patients with spinal cord injury (3 complete, 3 incomplete) with(More)
The potassium (K+) channel-blocking agent 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is currently being investigated for its potential therapeutic value in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that 4-AP ameliorates central motor conduction deficits in individuals with SCI. Oral 4-AP (10 mg) was administered to 19 (n =(More)
Recent research with computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) of the brain has revealed a type of tissue change for which no fitting term exists. The change appears as areas of decreased density on CT and changed signals of the white matter in MR images. Because neither a definite pathological change nor a specific clinical deficit(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a potassium (K+) channel blocking agent that has been shown to reduce the latency and increase the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These effects on MEPs are thought to reflect enhanced conduction in long tract axons(More)
We have investigated the effects of mild whole body hypothermia on the amplitude and latency of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in control subjects (n = 12) and patients (n = 15) with chronic compressive or contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). Mild hypothermia (-1 degree C) was induced by controlled circulation of propylene glycol through a(More)
Conditioning of lower limb H-reflexes by transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex was used to detect preserved innervation in patients with long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI). Cortical stimulation was delivered at intensities suprathreshold or subthreshold for evoking motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The conditioning (C) cortical stimulation(More)