Pamela M. Vacek

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BACKGROUND Risk prediction models for breast cancer can be improved by the addition of recently identified risk factors, including breast density and use of hormone therapy. We used prospective risk information to predict a diagnosis of breast cancer in a cohort of 1 million women undergoing screening mammography. METHODS There were 2,392,998 eligible(More)
The overall objective of this study was to evaluate a continuum of biomarkers in blood and urine for their sensitivities as indicators of low level occupational exposures to 1,3 butadiene (BD). The study design was largely cross-sectional, with biological samples collected within a short timeframe. Personal 8-h BD exposure measures were made on several(More)
High levels of ambient air pollution are associated with exacerbation of asthma and respiratory morbidity, yet little is known concerning the mechanisms of inflammation and toxicity by components of inhaled particulate matter (PM). Brief inhalation of PM(2.5) (particles of an aerodynamic diameter of < 2.5 microns) (300 microg/m(3) air for 6 h followed by a(More)
PURPOSE We determined whether the association between breast density and breast cancer risk and cancer severity differs according to menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) use. METHODS We collected data on 587,369 women who underwent 1,349,027 screening mammography examinations; 14,090 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. We(More)
Over two million individuals suffer ankle ligament trauma each year in the United States, more than half of these injuries are severe ligament sprains; however, very little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with ankle injury. We performed a(More)
BACKGROUND Therapy with low-dose corticosteroids is commonly used to treat allergic and autoimmune diseases. Long-term use of corticosteroids can lead to loss of bone mineral density and higher risk for vertebral fractures. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation is rational therapy for minimizing bone loss, but little evidence for its effectiveness exists.(More)
BACKGROUND Whether a change over time in clinically measured mammographic breast density influences breast cancer risk is unknown. METHODS From January 1993 to December 2003, data that included American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories (1-4 in order of increasing density) were collected(More)
BACKGROUND Most screening mammography in the United States differs from that in countries with formal screening programs by having a shorter screening interval and interpretation by a single reader vs independent double reading. We examined how these differences affect early detection of breast cancer by comparing performance measures and histopathologic(More)
BACKGROUND Etiologic studies of breast carcinoma have indicated that weight, body mass index (BMI), and breast tissue density are important determinants of a woman's risk for the disease. This study looked at the independent effects of these risk factors. METHODS Data from the Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System (VBCSS), collected between May 1996(More)
PURPOSE As life expectancy improves for women with breast cancer, more women will be living with symptoms of lymphedema. This study reports the incidence of arm or hand swelling and associated risk factors in women with invasive breast cancer following surgery. METHODS Data were obtained from baseline and follow-up interviews of women with invasive breast(More)