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BACKGROUND The aggressive and heterogeneous nature of lung cancer has thwarted efforts to reduce mortality from this cancer through the use of screening. The advent of low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) altered the landscape of lung-cancer screening, with studies indicating that low-dose CT detects many tumors at early stages. The National Lung(More)
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a randomized multicenter study comparing low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Five-year survival rates approach 70%(More)
Smoking is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The product of the GSTM1 gene, glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), is involved in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke; a homozygous deletion of this gene in approximately 50% of Caucasians and Asians results in a lack of GSTM1 enzyme activity. Most studies(More)
BACKGROUND The Mayo Lung Project (MLP) was a randomized, controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening that was conducted in 9211 male smokers between 1971 and 1983. The intervention arm was offered chest x-ray and sputum cytology every 4 months for 6 years; the usual-care arm was advised at trial entry to receive the same tests annually. No lung(More)
BACKGROUND A troubling aspect of cancer screening is the potential for overdiagnosis, i.e., detection of disease that, in the absence of screening, would never have been diagnosed. Overdiagnosis is of particular concern in lung cancer screening because newer screening modalities can identify small nodules of unknown clinical significance. Previously(More)
Objectives: Some epidemiologic studies suggest that adolescent physical activity reduces subsequent breast cancer risk. To examine this question further, we analyzed data on physical activity at age 12 that had been collected as part of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS). Methods: The CBCS is a population-based, case-control study of 527 white and 337(More)
BACKGROUND The National Lung Screening Trial was conducted to determine whether three annual screenings (rounds T0, T1, and T2) with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT), as compared with chest radiography, could reduce mortality from lung cancer. We present detailed findings from the first two incidence screenings (rounds T1 and T2). METHODS We(More)
The NAT2 gene is involved in phase II detoxification of aromatic monoamines, a class of known bladder carcinogens. Certain allelic combinations result in the slow acetylation phenotype, which is thought to increase bladder cancer risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of all identifiable published case-control studies conducted in the general population that(More)
Objectives: Studies of breast cancer among survivors of the World War II atomic bomb blasts over Japan suggest that the adolescent breast may be particularly sensitive to carcinogenic insult. To further explore that possibility we examined the relationships of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and medical(More)
Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder cancer risk therefore has been hypothesized to be stronger(More)