Pamela J. Sykes

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Almost all of the data on the biological effects of ionizing radiation come from studies of high doses. However, the human population is unlikely to be exposed to such doses. Regulatory limits for radiation exposure are based on the linear no-threshold model, which predicts that the relationship between biological effects and radiation dose is linear, and(More)
Somatic intrachromosomal recombination can result in inversions and deletions in DNA, which are important mutations in cancer. The pKZ1 chromosomal inversion assay is a sensitive assay for studying the effects of DNA damaging agents using chromosomal inversion as a mutation end-point. We have previously demonstrated that the chromosomal inversion response(More)
We describe a general method to quantitate the total number of initial targets present in a sample using limiting dilution, PCR and Poisson statistics. The DNA target for the PCR was the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene derived from a leukemic clone that was quantitated against a background of excess rearranged IgH genes from normal(More)
The term radiation-induced bystander effect is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that manifest in unirradiated cells remaining within an irradiated cell population. Despite their failure to fit into the framework of classical radiobiology, radiation-induced bystander effects have entered the mainstream and have become established in the(More)
An adaptive response is a response to a stress such as radiation exposure that results in a lower than expected biological response. We describe an adaptive response to X radiation in mouse prostate using the pKZ1 chromosomal inversion assay. pKZ1 mice were treated with a priming dose of 0.001, 0.01, 1 or 10 mGy followed 4 h later by a 1000-mGy challenge(More)
Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who might be cured by aggressive management are not easily identified using current clinical information. Additional, more accurate, biomarkers of tumor behavior need to be identified to improve clinical outcome. Our previous studies indicated that the concentration of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin(More)
We present here the first high resolution melt (HRM) assay to quantitatively analyze differences in murine DNA methylation levels utilizing CpG methylation of Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE1 or L1). By calculating the integral difference in melt temperature between samples and a methylated control, and biasing PCR primers for unmethylated CpGs, the(More)
The majority of mutation studies are performed at high doses of DNA damaging agents due to the insensitivity of most mutation assays. Extrapolation using a linear no-threshold (LNT) dose response model is then used to estimate the extent of possible DNA damage at lower doses. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the LNT model may not be correct at(More)
The potential for irradiated cells to induce biological effects in their unirradiated neighbors (known as the bystander effect) has been observed repeatedly in vitro. However, whether bystander effects occur in vivo under the specific conditions relevant to low-dose radiation protection is still unclear. To test this, the fate of bystander cells in the(More)
In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction strongly predicts outcome, presumably because it measures both drug sensitivity and the number of leukemic cells requiring elimination. Children with high levels (> 10(-3) leukemic cells per marrow cell) nearly always relapse, whereas(More)