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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nucleotide noncoding RNAs produced by Dicer-catalyzed excision from stem-loop precursors. Many plant miRNAs play critical roles in development, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and pathogen responses via interactions with specific target mRNAs. miRNAs are not the only Dicer-derived small RNAs produced(More)
Small RNAs play important regulatory roles in most eukaryotes, but only a small proportion of these molecules have been identified. We sequenced more than two million small RNAs from seedlings and the inflorescence of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Known and new microRNAs (miRNAs) were among the most abundant of the nonredundant set of more than(More)
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulatory molecules in most eukaryotes and identification of their target mRNAs is essential for their functional analysis. Whereas conventional methods rely on computational prediction and subsequent experimental validation of target RNAs, we directly sequenced >28,000,000 signatures from the 5' ends of polyadenylated(More)
Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic(More)
Small RNAs have a variety of important roles in plant development, stress responses, and other processes. They exert their influence by guiding mRNA cleavage, translational repression, and chromatin modification. To identify previously unknown rice (Oryza sativa) microRNAs (miRNAs) and those regulated by environmental stress, 62 small RNA libraries were(More)
Pea nuclear extracts were used in gel retardation assays and DNase I footprinting experiments to identify a protein factor that specifically interacts with regulatory DNA sequences upstream of the pea rbcS-3A-gene. This factor, designated GT-1, binds to two short sequences (boxes II and III) in the -150 region that are known to function as light-responsive(More)
Legumes and many nonleguminous plants enter symbiotic interactions with microbes, and it is poorly understood how host plants respond to promote beneficial, symbiotic microbial interactions while suppressing those that are deleterious or pathogenic. Trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) negatively regulate target transcripts and are characterized by siRNAs spaced(More)
Recent results have identified a diversity of small RNAs in a wide range of organisms. In this work, we demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a small RNA population consisting primarily of tRNA halves and rRNA fragments. Both 5' and 3' fragments of tRNAs are detectable by Northern blot analysis, suggesting a process of endonucleolytic cleavage.(More)