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OBJECTIVE Metformin has been associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk and may improve survival after cancer through direct and indirect tumor-suppressing mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin therapy on survival in women with breast cancer using methods that accounted for the duration of treatment with(More)
Observational studies suggest that host factors are associated with breast cancer risk. The influence of obesity, vitamin-D status, insulin resistance, inflammation, and elevated adipocytokines in women at high risk of breast cancer is unknown. The NSABP-P1 trial population was used for a nested case-control study. Cases were drawn from those who developed(More)
The antidiabetic drug metformin exhibits potential anticancer properties that are believed to involve both direct (insulin-independent) and indirect (insulin-dependent) actions. Direct effects are linked to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and an inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signaling, and indirect effects are mediated(More)
Biguanides have been developed for the treatment of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Recently, metformin, the most widely prescribed biguanide, has emerged as a potential anticancer agent. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical evidence supports the use of metformin as a cancer therapeutic. The ability of metformin to lower circulating insulin may be(More)
Obesity and components of energy imbalance, that is, excessive energy intake and suboptimal levels of physical activity, are established risk factors for cancer incidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that these factors also may be important after the diagnosis of cancer and influence the course of disease, as well as overall health, well-being, and(More)
BACKGROUND cMyc and p27 are key genes implicated in carcinogenesis. Whether polymorphisms in these genes affect breast cancer risk or prognosis is still unclear. In this study, we focus on a rare non-synonymous polymorphism in cMyc (N11S) and a common polymorphism in p27 (V109G) and determine their role in risk and prognosis using data collected from the(More)
The mechanism of the association between breast cancer and obesity remains unknown. To investigate this mice over-expressing HER2/Neu in the mammary gland (MMTV-HER2/Neu) were fed either a high-fat diet (45% of calories) (HFD) or low-fat diet (10%) (LFD) from 4 weeks of age and followed for up to 1 year, or sacrificed when a mammary tumor reached 1.5 cm.(More)
Group psychotherapy has become an important modality of intervention in contemporary psychooncology. This article reviews and describes the rationale and foundations for group psychotherapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. It emerges from a replication study of an earlier study performed by Spiegel (Spiegel, Bloom, Kraemer & Gottheil, 1989), which(More)
The aim of this study was to survey Canadian oncology practitioners' attitudes toward psychosocial concerns and issues in women with breast cancer. Surveys were mailed to 351 medical, radiation and surgical oncologists and 375 oncology nurses. Standard questionnaires assessed attitudes towards psychosocial issues in women with primary and metastatic breast(More)