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To better understand proteasomal degradation of nuclear proteins and viral antigens we studied mutated forms of influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) that misfold and are rapidly degraded by proteasomes. In the presence of proteasome inhibitors, mutated NP (dNP) accumulates in highly insoluble ubiquitinated and nonubiquitinated species in nuclear substructures(More)
Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone that displays lectin activity and contributes to the folding pathways for nascent glycoproteins. Calreticulin also participates in the reactions yielding assembly of peptides onto nascent MHC class I molecules. By chemical and immunological criteria, we identify calreticulin as a peptide-binding(More)
Microbial molecules or cytokines can stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which involves DC migration to lymph nodes and enhanced presentation of Ag to launch T cell responses. Microbial TLR agonists are the most studied inducers of DC maturation, but type I IFN (IFN-I) also promotes DC maturation. In response to TLR stimulation, DC maturation involves(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence is decreased by genetic deletion of the lipoprotein LprG, but the function of LprG remains unclear. We report that LprG expressed in Mtb binds to lipoglycans, such as lipoarabinomannan (LAM), that mediate Mtb immune evasion. Lipoglycan binding to LprG was dependent on both insertion of lipoglycan acyl chains into a(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that infects lung macrophages and releases microbial factors that regulate host defense. M. tuberculosis lipoproteins and lipoglycans block phagosome maturation, inhibit class II MHC Ag presentation, and modulate TLR2-dependent cytokine production, but the mechanisms for their release during infection(More)
The production of extracellular vesicles is a universal mechanism for intercellular communication that is conserved across kingdoms. Prokaryotes secrete 50-250 nm membrane vesicles (MVs) in a manner that is regulated by environmental stress and is thought to promote survival. Since many types of host-derived stress are encountered during infection, this(More)
(2004). Pituitary transcription factor Prop-1 stimulates porcine follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 324:946-952. (1995). Regulation of Gax homeobox gene transcription by a combination of positive factors including myocyte-specific Enhancer Factor 2. Mol Cell Biol 15(8):4272-4281. (PLAP plasmid-transfected rat(More)
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