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BACKGROUND Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS AND FINDINGS In a nationwide population-based cohort study of IPD in Denmark during 1977-2007, 30-d(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at the population level is unclear. We explored PCV13's effect in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-related morbidity and mortality, and whether serotype-specific changes were attributable to vaccination or expected as a part of natural, cyclical variations. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Globally, solid fuels are used by about 3 billion people for cooking. These fuels have been associated with many health effects, including acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children. Nepal has a high prevalence of use of biomass for cooking and heating. OBJECTIVE This case-control study was conducted among a population in the(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Diarrhea and pneumonia are the leading causes of illness and death in children <5 years of age. Zinc supplementation is effective for treatment of acute diarrhea and can prevent pneumonia. In this trial, we measured the efficacy of zinc when given to children hospitalized and treated with antibiotics for severe pneumonia. METHODS(More)
To study the natural history of rotavirus infection and to determine the protection it confers against reinfection and diarrhea, 200 newborns in Guinea-Bissau were prospectively followed for up to 2 years. Rotavirus was detected in stool specimens collected weekly. By age 2 years, the incidence of primary rotavirus infection was 74%. In the first 3 months(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is among the main causes of illness and death in children <5 years of age. There is a need to better describe the epidemiology of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in developing countries. METHODS From July 2004 to June 2007, we examined nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) from 2,230 cases of pneumonia (World Health Organization(More)
BACKGROUND Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children living in developing countries and of travellers' diarrhoea. During the past 25 years, vaccine development efforts have been focused on induction of protective immunity against surface colonisation factors (CFs) and the heat-labile(More)
Among 167 rotavirus specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further characterized. Due to interprimer interaction during the standard(More)
A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by(More)
Surveillance of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in Denmark was enhanced during the 2009–10 winter season with a system monitoring the burden of the pandemic on intensive care units (ICUs), in order to inform policymakers and detect shortages in ICUs in a timely manner. Between week 46 of 2009 and week 11 of 2010, all 36 relevant Danish ICUs reported in two(More)