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Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has numerous cellular functions, including cell survival and proliferation. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of the active form of PI3K induced dorsal differentiation and axis duplication and strongly induced the expression of neural markers. In contrast, the inhibition of PI3K activity by its dominant(More)
In this study, we established an embryo model to study the effects of ethanol on fetal development. When embryos of Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog) were exposed to ethanol, the resultant tadpoles had significantly reduced brain sizes (microencephaly) and retarded growth rates. These effects, similar to those observed in human fetal alcohol syndrome(More)
Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of birth defects in humans. Despite extensive studies, the molecular basis is still not clear. Here we transiently exposed Xenopus embryos to alcohol and showed that alcohol dose-dependently produced microcephaly and growth retardation. Moreover, it reduced the expression of several key(More)
PURPOSE To study the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced ocular anomalies in Xenopus embryos. METHODS Xenopus embryos were exposed to various concentrations (0.1%-0.5%) of alcohol, and the subsequent effects in eye development and in eye marker gene expression were determined. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and(More)
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly malignant and frequently metastasized tumor. Endostatin has been shown to inhibit NPC growth, but its efficacy against NPC metastasis has not been shown in vivo. Here, we established a NPC metastasis model in mice by transplanting EBV-positive NPC cells, C666-1, in the livers of nude mice and observed lung(More)
AIM To compare the gene expression profile in a pair of HBV-infected twins. METHODS The gene expression profile was compared in a pair of HBV-infected twins. RESULTS The twins displayed different disease outcomes. One acquired natural immunity against HBV, whereas the other became a chronic HBV carrier. Eighty-eight and forty-six genes were found to be(More)
Accumulated evidence indicates that maternal alcohol consumption causes fetal enteric damage and growth retardation. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in a Xenopus model of fetal alcohol exposure. We established a condition of transient alcohol exposure that produces tadpoles with delayed gut maturation and decreased body(More)
Makorin-2 belongs to the makorin RING zinc finger gene family, which encodes putative ribonucleoproteins. Here we cloned the Xenopus makorin-2 (mkrn2) and characterized its function in Xenopus neurogenesis. Forced overexpression of mkrn2 produced tadpoles with dorso-posterior deficiencies and small-head/short-tail phenotype, whereas knockdown of mkrn2 by(More)
We have previously shown that the Xenopus homologue of cold-inducible RNA binding protein, XCIRP-1, is required for the morphogenetic migration of the pronephros during embryonic development. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that XCIRP is essential for embryonic cell movement, as suppression of XCIRP by(More)
Makorin-2, consisting of four highly conserved C(3)H zinc fingers, a Cys-His motif and a C(3)HC(4) RING zinc finger domain, is a putative ribonucleoprotein. We have previously reported that Xenopus makorin-2 (mkrn2) is a neurogenesis inhibitor acting upstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. In(More)