Padmanabhan Santhosh

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The development of a highly parallel enzyme logic sensing concept employing a novel encoding scheme for the determination of multiple pathophysiological conditions is reported. The new concept multiplexes a contingent of enzyme-based logic gates to yield a distinct 'injury code' corresponding to a unique pathophysiological state as prescribed by a truth(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consist of carbon atoms arranged in sheets of graphene rolled up into cylindrical shapes. This class of nanomaterials has attracted attention because of their extraordinary properties, such as high electrical and thermal conductivity. In addition, development in CNT functionalization chemistry has led to an enhanced dispersibility in(More)
Nanofibrous glucose electrodes were fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) into an electrospun composite membrane consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dispersed with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) wrapped by a cationic polymer (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)) and this nanofibrous electrode (NFE) is abbreviated(More)
A multi-enzyme biocatalytic cascade processing simultaneously five biomarkers characteristic of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and soft tissue injury (STI) was developed. The system operates as a digital biosensor based on concerted function of 8 Boolean AND logic gates, resulting in the decision about the physiological conditions based on the logic analysis(More)
The design and characterization of a microneedle array-based carbon paste electrode towards minimally invasive electrochemical sensing are described. Arrays consisting of 3 × 3 pyramidal microneedle structures, each with an opening of 425 µm, were loaded with a metallized carbon paste transducer. The renewable nature of carbon paste electrodes enables the(More)
A biocomputing system composed of a combination of AND/IDENTITY logic gates based on the concerted operation of three enzymes: lactate oxidase, horseradish peroxidase and glucose dehydrogenase was designed to process biochemical information related to pathophysiological conditions originating from various injuries. Three biochemical markers: lactate,(More)
The ability to assess diverse security threats using a biochemical logic network system is demonstrated. The new biocatalytic cascade, emulating a NOR logic gate, is able to identify the presence of explosive compounds and nerve agents by providing a simple and rapid 'YES'/'NO' alert.
Experimental and theoretical analyses of the lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase based enzymatic AND logic gates in which the enzymes and their substrates serve as logic inputs are performed. These two systems are examples of the novel, previously unexplored class of biochemical logic gates that illustrate potential biomedical applications of(More)
A new methodology for the fabrication of bienzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor based on the use of an organic-inorganic hybrid is presented. The fabrication involves a self-assembly directed one-pot electrochemical process. Bi-enzymes, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) are immobilized into the porous and electroactive(More)
High electrochemical reactivity is required for various energy and sensing applications of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Herein, we report that heterogeneous electron transfer can be remarkably fast at CVD-grown graphene electrodes that are fabricated without using the conventional poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for graphene transfer(More)