Padmanabhan Santhosh

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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consist of carbon atoms arranged in sheets of graphene rolled up into cylindrical shapes. This class of nanomaterials has attracted attention because of their extraordinary properties, such as high electrical and thermal conductivity. In addition, development in CNT functionalization chemistry has led to an enhanced dispersibility in(More)
The development of a screen-printed strip-based amperometric biosensor for the determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels is reported. The biosensor utilizes 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a redox mediator to enable high-sensitivity quantification of physiological levels of MPO. A multivariate parameter optimization was performed. Under the(More)
A multi-enzyme biocatalytic cascade processing simultaneously five biomarkers characteristic of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and soft tissue injury (STI) was developed. The system operates as a digital biosensor based on concerted function of 8 Boolean AND logic gates, resulting in the decision about the physiological conditions based on the logic analysis(More)
The design and characterization of a microneedle array-based carbon paste electrode towards minimally invasive electrochemical sensing are described. Arrays consisting of 3 × 3 pyramidal microneedle structures, each with an opening of 425 µm, were loaded with a metallized carbon paste transducer. The renewable nature of carbon paste electrodes enables the(More)
The development of a highly parallel enzyme logic sensing concept employing a novel encoding scheme for the determination of multiple pathophysiological conditions is reported. The new concept multiplexes a contingent of enzyme-based logic gates to yield a distinct 'injury code' corresponding to a unique pathophysiological state as prescribed by a truth(More)
Nanofibrous glucose electrodes were fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) into an electrospun composite membrane consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dispersed with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) wrapped by a cationic polymer (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)) and this nanofibrous electrode (NFE) is abbreviated(More)
The ability to assess diverse security threats using a biochemical logic network system is demonstrated. The new biocatalytic cascade, emulating a NOR logic gate, is able to identify the presence of explosive compounds and nerve agents by providing a simple and rapid 'YES'/'NO' alert.
Experimental and theoretical analyses of the lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase based enzymatic AND logic gates in which the enzymes and their substrates serve as logic inputs are performed. These two systems are examples of the novel, previously unexplored class of biochemical logic gates that illustrate potential biomedical applications of(More)
A biocomputing system composed of a combination of AND/IDENTITY logic gates based on the concerted operation of three enzymes: lactate oxidase, horseradish peroxidase and glucose dehydrogenase was designed to process biochemical information related to pathophysiological conditions originating from various injuries. Three biochemical markers: lactate,(More)
Here we report on a generalized theory for scanning electrochemical microscopy to enable the voltammetric investigation of a heterogeneous electron-transfer (ET) reaction with arbitrary reversibility and mechanism at the macroscopic substrate. In this theory, we consider comprehensive nanoscale experimental conditions where a tip is positioned at a(More)