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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen.(More)
Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes fever disease, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and arthralgia. Indigenous to tropical Africa, recent large outbreaks have been reported in parts of South East Asia and several of its neighboring islands in 2005-07 and in Europe in 2007.(More)
BACKGROUND Vaccination and passive antibody therapies are critical for controlling infectious diseases. Passive antibody administration has limitations, including the necessity for purification and multiple injections for efficacy. Vaccination is associated with a lag phase before generation of immunity. Novel approaches reported here utilize the benefits(More)
Infectious diseases are a major global public health problem. Multiple agents are now recognized to cause indistinguishable illnesses. The term 'syndrome' applies to such situations, for which early and rapid diagnosis of the infecting agent would enable prompt and appropriate therapy. Public health physicians would also get timely information on the(More)
The term superantigen was introduced in microbiology and immunology only a decade ago. The unique feature of superantigen is that it bypasses the antigen processing mechanism and specifically binds to TCR v segment and forms a trimolecular complex along with major histocompatibility complex class II. Since its discovery, several studies have been carried(More)
INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide as one of the leading infectious diseases. In India, more than 1.8 million new cases occur every year. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of TB would improve patient care and limit its transmission. This study aimed to evaluate a dual target polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
Increased levels of immune activation among HIV patients from developing countries are believed to accelerate and/or enhance the shift to a Th2 cytokine environment, which in turn may result in a more rapid progression to AIDS. In support of this hypothesis, we present data from a cohort of 35 HIV+ individuals in southern India. Among asymptomatic(More)
INTRODUCTION Re-emergence of Chikungunya is a major public health problem in the southern states of India. OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to investigate an outbreak of Chikungunya, in June-August 2008 using PCR and determine the prevalent genotypes of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) associated with the outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS Samples of blood(More)
The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) aims to improve case detection rates of tuberculosis to facilitate prompt recognition and treatment. The low case detection rates in the programme can be directly attributed to failure to screen patients with suspected tuberculosis and the low sensitivity of the direct smear microscopy method to(More)
AIDS was diagnosed in 187 men and 24 women (M:F = 8:1) from April 1987 till December 1994 at the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore. The doubling time of the occurrence of AIDS cases was 14 months; during 1987-90 there were an average of 5.7 cases per year; in 1991-93 there were 28 per year; in 1994 there were 104 cases. The mean age of patients(More)