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The brain's capacity to analyse and interpret information is limited ultimately by the input it receives. This sets a premium on information capacity of sensory receptors, which can be maximized by optimizing sensitivity, speed and reliability of response. Nowhere is selection pressure for information capacity stronger than in the visual system, where speed(More)
Phototransduction in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the activation of phospholipase C (PLC), but how this leads to gating of the light-sensitive channels is unknown. Most attention has focused on inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, a second messenger produced by PLC from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate; however, PLC(More)
Mutations in the Drosophila retinal degeneration A (rdgA) gene, which encodes diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), result in early onset retinal degeneration and blindness. Whole-cell recordings revealed that light-sensitive Ca2+ channels encoded by the trp gene were constitutively active in rdgA photoreceptors. Early degeneration was rescued in rdgA;trp double(More)
In Drosophila photoreceptors, the amplification responsible for generating quantum bumps in response to photoisomerization of single rhodopsin molecules has been thought to be mediated downstream of phospholipase C (PLC), since bump amplitudes were reportedly unaffected in mutants with greatly reduced levels of either G protein or PLC. We now find that(More)
The Drosophila light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL are prototypical members of an ion channel family responsible for a variety of receptor-mediated Ca(2+) influx phenomena, including store-operated calcium influx. While phospholipase Cbeta is essential, downstream events leading to TRP and TRPL activation remain unclear. We investigated the role of the(More)
The trp (transient receptor potential) gene encodes a Ca2+ channel responsible for the major component of the phospholipase C (PLC) mediated light response in Drosophila. In trp mutants, maintained light leads to response decay and temporary total loss of sensitivity (inactivation). Using genetically targeted PIP2-sensitive inward rectifier channels(More)
Light-sensitive channels encoded by the Drosophila transient receptor potential-like gene (trpl) are activated in situ by an unknown mechanism requiring activation of Gq and phospholipase C (PLC). Recent studies have variously concluded that heterologously expressed TRPL channels are activated by direct Gq-protein interaction, InsP3 or Ca2+. In an attempt(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-sensitive inward rectifier channel Kir2.1 was expressed in Drosophila photoreceptors and used to monitor in vivo PIP(2) levels. Since the wild-type (WT) Kir2.1 channel appeared to be saturated by the prevailing PIP(2) concentration, we made a single amino acid substitution (R228Q), which reduced the(More)
In this paper, the texture classification problem is projected as a constraint satisfaction problem. The focus is on the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) for representing the distribution of feature vectors of each texture class in order to generate a feature-label interaction constraint. This distribution of features for each class is assumed as(More)
An essential step in Drosophila phototransduction is the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) to generate a second messenger that opens the light-activated channels TRP and TRPL. Although the identity of this messenger remains unknown, recent evidence has implicated diacylglycerol kinase (DGK),(More)