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The use of tricyclic antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Despite a better side effect profile, this adverse effect has also been reported for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. To determine whether these findings result from bias arising from the case-control method, the authors have performed a case-control analysis(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that chronic inflammation may promote atherosclerotic disease. We tested the hypothesis that acute infection and vaccination increase the short-term risk of vascular events. METHODS We undertook within-person comparisons, using the case-series method, to study the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke after common(More)
Cases of aseptic meningitis associated with measles/mumps/rubella vaccine were sought in thirteen UK health districts following a reported cluster in Nottingham which suggested a risk of 1 in 4000 doses, substantially higher than previous estimates based on cases reported by paediatricians (4 per million). Cases were ascertained by obtaining vaccination(More)
In England and Wales, a large-scale multiple statistical surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation for nearly two decades. This system uses a robust quasi-Poisson regression algorithm to identify abberrances in weekly counts of isolates reported to the Health Protection Agency. In this paper, we review the performance of the(More)
We describe a new method for active post-marketing surveillance of vaccine safety based on patient records. We studied the association between diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP) vaccination and febrile convulsion, and between measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccination and febrile convulsion and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in five district health(More)
Four out of 12 horses grazing a field in Berkshire, England, suffered a prostrating illness and died within 12 to 72 h. Serum biochemical abnormalities, including markedly elevated muscle enzymes, were demonstrated and at post mortem widespread myodegeneration was found in both skeletal muscle and myocardium. Urine analysis revealed myoglobinuria, and renal(More)
We have reviewed data on meningococcal disease routinely collected in England and Wales from 1989 to 1995 to illustrate and explain changing patterns and guide future surveillance. Statutory notifications of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia, laboratory confirmed infections, and death registrations coded as meningococcal disease were analysed in(More)
BACKGROUND Antipsychotic agents (APs) are commonly prescribed to older patients with dementia. Antipsychotic use is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in this population. Our study aimed to investigate the association of AP use with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS A retrospective cohort of community-dwelling older(More)
The ESEN (European Sero-Epidemiology Network) project was established to harmonize the seroepidemiology of five vaccine preventable infections including measles, mumps and rubella in eight European countries. This involved achieving comparability both in the assay results from testing in different centres and also sampling methodology. Standardization of(More)
BACKGROUND The use of live oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) has led to the elimination of poliomyelitis disease in many countries since licensure in 1960. The discovery of an increased risk of an intestinal obstruction known as intussusception following live rotavirus vaccination raised questions about the possibility of a link between live OPV and(More)