Pacita L. Roberts

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BACKGROUND Although acute urinary tract infections are common in young women, the associated risk factors have not been defined prospectively. METHODS We recruited sexually active young women who were starting a new method of contraception at a university health center or a health maintenance organization (HMO) and monitored them for six months for(More)
BACKGROUND Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in young women, but little is known about its pathogenesis, natural history, risk factors, and temporal association with symptomatic urinary tract infection. METHODS We prospectively evaluated 796 sexually active, nonpregnant women from 18 through 40 years of age over a period of six months for the occurrence(More)
Women with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) often demonstrate persistent vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli. Since strains of lactobacilli that produce hydrogen peroxide inhibit the growth of E. coli, the absence of these strains may predispose to E. coli colonization and to UTI. To test this hypothesis, vaginal introital cultures were(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among women and frequently recur. Depletion of vaginal lactobacilli is associated with UTI risk, which suggests that repletion may be beneficial. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (Lactin-V; Osel) for prevention of(More)
BACKGROUND Although behavioral risk factors are strongly associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) risk, the role of genetics in acquiring this disease is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway genes are associated with susceptibility to UTIs, we conducted a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were(More)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is epidemic in Central Africa. To determine the prevalence of AIDS virus infection in East Africa, we studied 90 female prostitutes, 40 men treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, and 42 medical personnel in Nairobi, Kenya. Antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type III (HTLV-III) was(More)
Homosexual men are at high risk of anorectal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV-related anal cancer, and precancer, conditions known to increase with immunosuppression. The relationship between anal HPV infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and immunosuppression was studied in homosexual men seen at a sexually transmitted disease(More)
We conducted independent case-control and retrospective cohort investigations to assess the relationship between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection (UTI). In the former, we compared diaphragm use and vaginal flora among 114 women with acute UTI and 85 women with acute urinary tract symptoms and no UTI. In the latter study, we ascertained the(More)
To examine whether antecedent antimicrobial use influenced subsequent relative risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) in premenopausal women, data were analyzed from two cohorts of women observed prospectively for 6 months to determine risk factors for UTI. Using a Cox proportional hazards model to adjust for covariates, we found that 326 women in a(More)