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Improvements in the ability to model El Niño and other large-scale interannual climate variations have allowed for the development of seasonal climate forecasts, predicting rainfall and temperature anomalies for many places around the world. These forecasts have allowed developing countries to predict shortfalls in grain yields, with benefits for food(More)
The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings,(More)
All rights reserved. The publisher encourages fair use of this material provided proper citation is made. No reproduction , copy or transmission of this report may be made without written permission of the publisher. and Society hosted a policy roundtable on the use of index insurance for poverty reduction. The discussion brought together experts from(More)
Growth hormone (GH) secretion in children and adults is profoundly, but reversibly, suppressed in obesity. Since GH deficiency leads to increased fat mass, differentiation of both conditions remains challenging. Here we review the known and still speculative mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of obesity on GH secretion including peripheral factors(More)
The ZigBee standard builds on the assumption that infrastructure nodes have a constant power supply. ZigBee therefore does not provide any power-saving mechanisms for routing nodes, which limits the lifetime of battery-powered ZigBee networks to a few days. This short lifetime drastically restricts the possible application scenarios for ZigBee. To expand(More)
In 2008, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) used a seasonal forecast for West Africa for the first time to implement an Early Warning, Early Action strategy for enhanced flood preparedness and response. Interviews with disaster managers suggest that this approach improved their capacity and response. Relief supplies(More)
Communicating over a reliable radio channel is vital for an efficient resource usage in sensor networks: a bad radio channel can lead to poor application performance and higher energy consumption. Previous research has shown that the LQI mean value is a good estimator of the link quality. Nevertheless, due to its high variance, many packets are needed to(More)
The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings,(More)